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CLASS OF 1889 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



Old Series Vol. XXII. No. 1. New Series Vol. Xrf 



George C. Conner, W. E. Eollins, 

C. F. Harvey. E. Payson Willard. 

Howard E^nd^hIler,' } Business Mana S ers - 

Published six times a year under the auspices of the Pilanthropic and 
Dialetic Societies. Subscription. $1.00. Single copy, 20 cents. 


Memorial Address Delivered in the Chapel op the University, 
by Josephus Daniels, Sunday, May 31st, 1891. 

We are gathered in the quiet hush of this holy Sabbath after- 
noon, hei^e where he lived long and well, in this chapel which 
he loved, to pay perhaps the last tribute which affection evokes to 
the memory of Adolphus W. Mangum, who died on the 12th day 
of May, 1890. There is not wanting appropriateness in the time 
and place for this last gathering of his friends. Already have the 
Trustees of this great University, which he served with loving 
fidelity, placed in durable form their estimate of his valued ser- 
vices. Last December in Wilson the annual conference of his 
church, to which his warmest and tenderest love clung to the very 
last, gave official expression to the loss sustained by the church. 
Fellow-soldiers of the cross, who had stood with him upon the bat- 
tlements and sounded the warning to a dying world, paused to 
drop a tear at the fall of a brave and eloquent comrade. The 
societies to which he belonged were not slow to pay their tributes, 
and from' every section of the State, trustees and parents, who 
had seen the value of his instruction and example in the better- 



ment of the lives of their own boys, came letters of sweetest sym- 
pathy and warmest love to those bereaved. But, perhaps, of all 
the tributes paid by faculty, trustees, conferences, friends, societies 
and others, none were more loving and generous in the sorrow 
which alone touches aspiring youth, than the testimony which 
came up from the great body of students who have gone out from 
the halls of this venerable institution since its re-opening in 1875. 
What a cloud of witnesses they make, as from sorrowing hearts 
they bear testimony to the piety and usefulness of their old pre- 

I am to speak to-day of one whom I greatly loved and deeply 
venerated — one whose confidence I enjoyed and whose prayers for 
me rested, as I believe, like a benediction upon my head. It was 
not my good fortune to be a student of this University and to 
know him as instructor, and to receive the benefit of his teachings. 
I came to know him well and to esteem him in a short stay in the 
village, and to continue the friendly intercourse here begun 
through correspondence and occasional meetings up to his death. 
He won my esteem by his devotion to principle, and his purity; and 
gained a lasting place in my affections by his solicitude for my 
advancement, his willing help in good advice and valued service, 
and his prayers which I know always followed me in every under- 
taking. It has been a sad pleasure since his death to read some 
of his personal letters filled with fatherly counsel and Christian 
admonition. Need I say that holding him in such estoom, I come 
to the task of estimating his life-work with grave doubts as to my 
ability to do so with that judicial discrimination which is alike a 
duty due to his memory and to posterity. It is no less easy for a 
friend to divest himself of partial admiration, when he comes to 
speak in memory of one much beloved, than for an enemy to 
distort his virtues. I cannot forget that from "the language of 
mere eulogy" the good man whose memory we honor to-day 
"would have recoiled with instinctive and resolute disapproval." 
"But he would hardly chide mo, I venture to believe, il* he knew 
that, in obedience to the voice" of the Trustees of the University, 
1 had come here to tell you what I remember of him and sketch 
the leading incidents of his life — "to recall how in him. as I pro- 
foundly believe, the grace of <b>d wrought with singular power 


and efficacy, and how in his natural characteristics, enriched and 
ennobled by the indwelling power of the Holy Grhost, there shone 
forth a Christian manhood at once strong and pure, and so worthy 
of our grateful imitation." 

Adolphus Williamson Mangum was born at Flat River, April 
1st, 1834. His parents were Elison Gr. and Elizabeth Mangum, 
whose father, Dr. Harris, was a leading physician of Boyden, Ya. 
His father was a solid and respected farmer — not wealthy nor 
scholarly, but industrious and ambitious for his son who early 
gave promise of a brilliant career. Noting the mental calibre, 
ambitious dreams, reflective powers, and fondness for learning of 
his son, Mr. Mangum resolved to give him the best advantages 
and make a great lawyer of him. Dr. Mangum's father was the 
first cousin of the eloquent and able Wiley P. Mangum. Not him- 
self having a classical education, he had always grealty admired 
the gifts of his distinguished cousin and the hope of his life was to 
see his son Adolphus receive his mantle of legal and oratorical 
greatness when he should be gathered to his fathers. He sent his 
son early to South Lowell Academy and he was there prepared 
for college by Prof. J. A. Dean with the view, in the mind of his 
lather, of becoming a lawyer. He then entered Randolph-Macon 
College, where he graduated in 1854 with the degree of A. B. 
Afterwards he received the degre of A. M. He was a good student 
and led his class at college, winning not only honors but the affec- 
tion of his class-mates and the esteem of his instructors. Although 
he was always attached to his Alma Mater, was a Trustee of 
Randolph-Macon, at which he delivered the alumni address several 
years ago, and from which in 1879 he received the degree of D. D., 
it was not through choice that he was educated at that seat of learn- 
ing. He was anxious to matriculate at the University, but through 
the influence of his maternal uncle, who lived near that college, 
his father was persuaded to send him to Randolph-Macon. 

The limits of this paper forbid more than a passing allusion to 
his youth and college life. From a small boy he was devoted to 
nature, beautiful scenery, flowers, landscape. As a 3 r outh he was 
fond of everything that brought him close to animal life and to 
the w T oods and flowei's. He knew the name of every bird and tree 
and animal, and felt a comradeship with them. He wrote often of 


rural life and the pleasures of the country with a charm born of 
deep love of the scenes of his boyhood. He had the eye and the 
instincts and tastes of a poet. Those instincts led him through 
nature up to God. When quite a boy, running before his parents 
on a Sunday afternoon, as they walked through the fields of their 
country home, he heard them talking very earnestly. Little did 
they reckon that his young mind would follow them or that all 
they said impressed him more than the butterflies he chased. 
Tired of his play, he ceased running and came to walk beside his 
mother who, with a fervor not often exhibited, put her hands 
solemnly on his head and said to her husband "this is to be our 
preacher." It profoundly impressed him then and ever afterwards. 
It was the earliest awakening of the heavenly call to preach, and 
that "laying on of hands" by a fond mother on that solemn Sab- 
bath evening was a consecration to the high office of a priest 
which was recorded by the angels; and ratified when, at Salisbury 
in 18G0, Bishop Paine received him as an elder with solemn cere- 
monies into the rank of those holy men who minister at God's 

It was largely through the example and teachings of his moth- 
er that his life was hid with Christ in God and that he became, 
like Samuel, dedicated from his youth to the service of the Biost 
High. Blessings upon her and upon a land full of christian moth- 
ers whose highest ambition for their boys is to see them humbk*. 
devoted christians. 

At Randolph-Macon college he was not only faithful in his 
studies, but took a deep interest in his own spiritual welfare and the 
betterment of the lives of his companions, having been converted 
at Mt. Bethel church, the church of his mother, in August 1840. 
During those days he kept a diary. It contains the reflections of 
a boy of poetic temperament and religious convictions. There is 
an entry in that diary — made April 25th 1S53, when he was 
twenty yearsold, and at the risk of making this memoir long I quote 
this entry. Itisthokey to his whole life, and is an example which 
is well worthy of emulation, 

" Randolph-Macon College, April 25th, 1533, 10 o'clock A. 
M. I am now forcibly impressed with the fact that it is 
essentially necessary for the enjoyment of Hie great fell- 


gion of God, that he who professes this religion should have stated 
times for the prayerful reading of God's Holy Bible ; stated times 
for engaging in sacred prayer to God ; and stated times for calm 
and serious meditation on God and all good. Convinced of the ne- 
cessity of these things, I do hereby record the religious duties 
which I respectively wish to perform, with the time that I wish to 
perform them each day ; and in so doing do most earnestly request 
the aid of God's blessed spirit that I may have the promptness to 
perform them. 

1st. Immediately after breakfast I design spending 30 min- 
utes in reading religious books, and in praying privately to God. 

2nd. At twelve o'clock I design spending 15 minutes in the 
same manner. 

3rd. After supper I wish to take a walk and meditate on the 
goodness etc. of God. 

4th. I design spending twenty minutes every night in read- 
ing the Bible and praying, commencing at 9 1-2 o'clock. 

To each of the duties I hope and trust that I shall be enabled 
diligently to adhere. When circumstances will not permit me to 
attend to my private devotions at the fixed time, I design attend- 
ing to them as soon afterwards as is in anywise practicable. 

(Signed) A. W. Mangum." 

This was not merely the forming of a purpose to perform his 
religious duties made in an hour of temporary fervor. It was the 
deliberate conviction of an earnest young man who for forty years 
observed this resolution made in the spring time of life. It will 
take no profound thinker to come to the conclusion that the faith- 
ful observance of these religious duties gave him the moral force 
to impress himself upon the religious and educational thought of 
the State. 

After graduation he returned home to receive the love and ad- 
miration of his mother and to gratify the pride of his father's 
heart. He had given his son more advantages than his condition 
permitted without some sacrifices, but these he gladly made in the 
fond expectation of seeing him take a high position at the bar. It 
was a great disappointment to his father when his son, whom he 
had prepared for the bar, resolved to abandon all hope of prefer- 
ment in the law and become a circuit rider. In those days when 


circuit riders did not wear beavers and when a circuit embraced a 
whole county and sometimes a Congressional District, and the sal- 
ary was meager in the extreme, it is no wonder that the fond and 
proud father was offended that his talented son should dash all his 
hopes to the ground and join the band of unselfish and holy men 
whose labors through hardships and privations rivalled the labors 
of the ministry in apostolic times. Wounded and grieved at his 
son's abandonment of the law and the honors which come to those 
who make it a jealous mistress, it ought not to surprise us that Eli- 
son Mangum lost his temper and wrote to his son strong words 
of disapproval of his course which he thought led only to poverty 
and privation. He saw not then the glory and the crown prepared 
for those who wait on Him— of Him who careth for those who 
leave father and mother and houses and lands to preach His gospel. 
He closed his letter to his son by saying that if he had known he 
would employ his talents in no higher avocation than as a cir- 
cuit rider he would not have spent the money he had expended in 
his education. This was a great sorrow to Dr. Mangum who was 
grateful for his father's love and sacrifices for him. With filial 
love he replied kindly and gently. But, with that faculty for doing 
the duty to which he was called and not allowing opposition to 
deter him an iota, he made application to preach, and in 1850 he 
was admitted on trial to the N.C. Conference and was first appointed 
junior preacher on Hillsboro circuit. In 1838-9 he was pastor 
of the Methodist church in Chapel Hill and while here carried on a 
revival which resulted in the conversion of 112 souls, many of them 
being students. In 1860 he was pastor of Roanoke circuit and 
greatly endeared himself to the people of that county. In 1801 he 
was sent as pastor to Salisbury and in the latter part of that year 
ho went as chaplain to the Gth N. C. regiment. In 1803 he was 
pastor at Goldsboro where he won all hearts and on Feb. 24th 
1804 he was happily married to Miss Laura J. Overman, daughter 
of Mr. Win, Overman, of Salisbury. It was a love match and 
throughout a long married life there was perfect happiness and 
tender love. lie often told how, as a lover, he would leave his 
books and sermon-making and go the depot to await the coining 
of the train that would In ing a letter from his promised wife in 

Salisbury. He never forgot that his wife was his sweetheart, ami 


if asked how long the honeymoon lasted he would have directed 
the inquirer to ask one who had been married longer than he. 
Conspicuous in his life was his intense devotion to his family. He 
was a wise, loving father. He made his children his friends. He 
racked his brain to give them all enjoyment which seemed 
to him innocent. To his wife he was ever a loyal, tender lover. 
He exacted obedience from his children, but it was not irksome to 
them. They saw how desirous he was of their happiness and they 
felt grateful to him and cheerfully submitted to his restraints. 
His fireside was of the happiest. He played and sang with his 
girls and entered into the sports of his boys. He played the vio- 
lin well and sang a good song. 

I will be pardoned, in alluding to his happy married life, for 
quoting from a letter which his heart prompted him to write to 
me three years ago upon my approaching marriage: 

"May God bless you both abundantly iorever. Put these 
rules in your united heart: (1) No secrets from one another; 
(2) Don't expect human beings to be absolutely perfect ; (3) 
There is no union without compromise of will; (4) Love and 
peace are cheap at any price but principle; (5) There is no 
such thing as happy marriage except where both hearts are true 
to God." 

These rules were those which had safely carried his matri- 
monial ship into a peaceful harbor. 

There is no period in the life of Dr. Mangum that presents the 
true unselfishness of his character in stronger light than the years 
of the war. He was an intense Southerner — believed firmly in the 
doctrine of the lost cause and loved the Confederate soldiers. A 
talented alumnus told me that once he found Dr. Mangum alone 
in Phi Hall. He had been looking at the portraits of Gen. Petti- 
grew and of other Confederate leaders. His eyes were filled with 
tears. He said in a half subdued, half musical tone: "It cannot 
be that all these precious lives were spent for naught." He had 
strong convictions that southern morals and manners were better 
than northern. He was an uncompromising opponent to the doc- 
trine that the newest teaching and thought from the north was the 
best. He refused to concede that the grammar and pronunciation 
in vocrue in the best circles of the north are better than that in 


vosrue in the best southern circles. This love of his section and 
belief in its superiority, strong in his mature years, was naturally 
more intense and deep-seated in the ardor of youth. Entering the 
ministry just before the sections joined battle, ho took a deep inter- 
est in the controversies which resulted in the bloody visage of war. 
He had no patience with the advocates of abolition. He then be- 
lieved that the best place for the negro was in slavery, and that 
there was no conflict between slave-owning and the Bible, provided 
masters were kind and just; and most of them were. Enter- 
taining these views, his heart was in the Lost Cause. On the first 
call for troops, Col. Chas. F. Fisher, of Salisbury, at once began to 
form his regiment, the famous 6th N. C. Dr. Mangum was then 
Methodist pastor at Salisbury. Young, hopeful, impetuous and full 
of zeal, he entered fully into the ambitions of the young soldiers of 
the south. Upon the organization of Col. Fisher's regiment, he 
was elected chaplain. His great popularity among the young men 
made them desirous of having him in the company and they pre- 
vailed upon him to accept the position. Early in June he joined 
the regiment at Compan}' Shops, where the several companies were 
ordered to assemble for the purpose of drilling and making ready 
for the campaign that awaited them upon the fields of Virginia. 
A few weeks thereafter they left for the front and arrived just in 
time to take part in tho first battle of Manassas — indeed just in 
time, as many believe, to save the day for the Confederacy. Tho 
battle was in full blast when they arrived upon the field and one 
wing of tho southern army was in full retreat. Col. Fisher and 
many of his brave men were killed in that engagement, among 
their number being Lieut. Preston Mangum, only son of the dis- 
tinguished orator Wiley P. Mangum. He was a near kinsman of 
Dr. Mangum, and he felt it his sorrowful duty to carry his body 
home and console those who wero bereaved by the death of the 
lovable and aspiring young son of a noble father. 

Of the young soilder it is true that 

"Tho bravest aro the tenderest 
Tho loving aro tho daring." 

He then returned to his regiment, where ho remained until 
the session of his conference, when he was again appointed pastor 
at Salisbury. He was afterwards appointed to Goldsboro, but in 


1865 was again returned as pastor to the Salisbury church. It was 
while pastor of that church that he rendered the most faithful, the 
most difficult and the holiest and sweetest of the services of his 
useful life. There were several large hospitals located in Salisbury 
during the entire war. He visited these hospitals daily and min- 
istered spiritually and otherwise to the wounded soldiers who lan- 
guished there. He attended the trains as they passed on south 
with the wounded, carrying provisions, and cheering with his sweet 
and tender words many who were suffering. His labors were un- 
tiring. He could not do enough for the Confedei*ate soldiers — his 
heart bled for them in their sufferings and his prayer was that they 
might win the fight of faith and come out conquerors through 
Jesus. Noble was his devotion to the Confederate soldiers, his 
christian love and fellowship was best displayed in spending his 
strength in ceasless efforts to minister to the comfort and spiritual 
condition of the Federal soldiers who were in prison in Salisbury. 
Some 1],000 soldiers of the Federal army died in the Salisbury 
prison and now lie buried in the Federal Cemetary. His love of 
his fellow-man knew no section. Intensely southern as he was, ho 
was a better christian than a partisan. He visited these Federal 
soldiers in their prisons, preached to them, prayed with them, 
and pointed them to the Savior. He was a welcome visitor at 
that prison and did what he could to relieve their sufferings. His 
sympathetic nature was deeply touched by the condition of these 
prisoners. Many were the letters he wrote to loved ones faraway 
to tell them of the death of a poor soldier who wanted to send a 
last message to those he held most dear. And if he could add "he 
died believing in Jesus" it would make Dr. Mangum's heart glad. 
Naturally this strain told greatly upon a nature so sympathetic 
and a body never over-strong. It reduced him almost to a shadow 
and destroyed his nervous system. His friends do not think that 
his nerves were ever restored to their normal condition. 

One of the last public addresses made by Dr. Mangum was 
delivered before the Historical Society of this University upon 
"Prison Life in Salisbury." The theme was one of great interest 
to him, and to his audience. In that address he only half covered 
the ground and proposed finishing the address at a subsequent 
meeting of the Society. But his health was shattered, and 


though lingering more than a year, he never had the time to 
deliver the second half of his address. However he finished the 
account he had begun and left the manuscript, which, when pub- 
lished will be a valuable contribution to the history of prison life 
of the war. It is one of his last productions, and ought to be 
widely circulated. It would correct falso rumors and give tho 
truth of prison life in the Confederacy. 

The limits of this memoir prevent any extended synopsis and 
extract from that interesting address. A day or two ago I read it 
to a few friends and as the horrible and revolting results of war 
were graphically pictured by his graphic pen, they were deeply 
moved and could not restrain tho tears. In that prison it was 
imposssible to obtain sufficient medicine which the Federal gov- 
ernment made a contraband of war, and the privations and hunger 
which poverty enforced taught the lesson indelibly that war is 
hell. Bibles were very scarce. Dr. Manga m preached to the 
prisoners, and used the only Testament he had, telling them dur- 
ing the discourse that ho intended presenting it to one of them. 
"I was touched," he says, "by their eagerness to get it, quite a 
number pressing up with expectant looks." He endeavored to 
secure reading for the prisoners and wrote to the Tract Society at 
Richmond. But there was nothing there to be sent. Rev. Mr. 
Bennett had gone to London to make arrangement to get some 
Bibles and Testaments. 

In that same address, speaking of the few religions privileges 
of the miserable prisoners, he adds: "But I have seen th^ light of 
heaven in the eye of the suffering captive and heard from his lips 
the glorious eloquence of salvation. From the tongue of another 
I have listened to the rich avowals of Christian hope and confi- 
dence, and heard the failing, almost inaudible voire mutter: 
'Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and T will 
give you rest.' These are glorious words. And doubtless amid the 
gloom and horror of that old prison, there was many an upward 
glance of the heart — many a struggle and triumph of faith — many 
a thrill of redeeming love and heavenly hope which, all unknown 
to friend or foe, wero recognized by Him whose name is love and 
who is might}' to save." 

After the war lie was pastor at Salisbury one year and in 1SC6 


rode Orange circuit. In 1867 he was appointed agent of 
Greensboro Female College and made a trip to the north to raise 
money to aid in its re-building. In 1868-9 he was, at his request, 
returned to Orange circuit where he could nurse his father who 
died in 1869. Long before this his father had not only become 
reconciled to having his son worthily wear the honors and bear 
the burdens of a Methodist circuit rider, but actually rejoiced that 
he had chosen "the better part" against his own remonstrance. 
In 1870 Dr. Mangum was pastor at Greensboro, and in 1871 at 
Charlotte. In 1872 he became pastor of Edenton Street Methodist 
church, Raleigh, and for nearly four years filled the metropolitan 
pulpit of his church at the capital, winning reputation and attach- 
ing himself warmly not only to his own congregation but to the 
leading men in the other churches as well. So highly was he 
esteemed in Raleigh that in 1887 several of the leading members 
of Edenton Street Methodist church wrote to him requesting that 
he resign his chair at the University and again become their 
pastor. He loved to preach and was strongly inclined to return to 
the ranks of the itinerants, but his convictions of duty compelled 
him to remain at the University. He was a clear and animated 
preacher and occasionally rose to an eloquence seldom surpassed. 
He was fluent and preached with great ease. His rhetoric was 
ornate and his figures were clothed with beauty and grace. His 
descriptive powers were of the best, particularly when he pictured 
the woods or the fields, or portrayed the love of God. He was a 
man of poetic temperament, of warm and tropical fancy, of ready 
command of diction that was full and flowing and that at times 
was intensely fervid and now and then rose to the heights of a 
kindling eloquence. He preached "Christ and Him Crucified" 
and sought to win men to follow in His steps. He was ambitious, 
but he subordinated everything to the object of his preaching, the 
winning of souls to Christ. His courage in the pulpit was Pauline. 
He never spared to denounce social laxities for fear he might 
strain social ties. The insubordination of children to home rule 
and discipline — the slackening of vigilance in domestic government 
and in the relations of servant and master, provoked his sharp and 
fearless censure. He had a great objection to publicity of women, 
even in good works. Church-fairs and church-concerts were not 


approved methods with him for raising church funds, and women 
on the platform roused all his antagonism. He thought that no 
woman who attended to her duties at home as she ouidit would 
ever bo found there. I never saw any ono who valued more highly 
personal purity. His talks on this subject were peculiarly vivid 
and strong, and it was a virtue whieh he sought above all things 
to impress upon the students and upon all young men with whom 
ho came in contact. 

I come now to speak of his connection with the University 
and his labor here. Elected to the chair of Literature and Mental 
and Moral Philosophy, upon the re-organ ization of the University, 
he entered upon his work with zeal and success. lie had an active 
mind and retentive memory. Until the disease, whieh finally 
killed him, poisoned his blood and diminished his nervous powers 
long before he was stricken at Newborn, ho was a diligent 
student. Owing to the poverty of the University, his work was 
so extensive, covered such a variety of great subjects, that he had 
no opportunity to distinguish himself as a specialist. When the 
increase of the University allowed the Trustees to give some of his 
studies to others, he began a wide course of reading in his depart- 
ment, but was interrupted in the midst of his labors by the insidi- 
ous attacks of his fatal disease. His teaching was full of serious 
hope. He inspired a belief in all his students that no life based 
upon true principles would fail. He said enthusiastically to one 
student: "Yes, sir, a life devoted to duty is the grandest thing on 
earth ; it cannot fail." 

As a college professor he was dignified and commanded the 
respect of the young men whom he taught, but in his deportment 
there was nothing of the starch ot the shroud. His nature was so 
genial and freo from pretense, that it would have revolted at the 
stilts upon which sorno collego professors mount and uneasily 
and ostentatiously attempt to walk over the heads of the young 
men they instruct. He never essayed to dazzle his students with 
an exhibition of learning or to impress them with a display of 
pedantry. Toward them he was frank, unaffected and sincere. He 
taught them conscientiously, but when the lesson was finished he 
did not feel that his responsibility ended and that the Student had 
no further claim upon him. lie respected and held inviolate the 


responsibility which the calling of teacher, not to speak of that 
higher call to the ministry, imposed upon him. The student is, in 
a sense, the plaster in the hand of the moulder. In many ways 
the imj^ression made upon him by the teacher fixes his destiny — 
not alone in this world, but often in the eternal world as well. Dr. 
Mangnm felt this truth deeply and sought to inspire every young 
man who came into his class-room with loftiest and holiest pur- 
poses. He set a daily example to scholars and teachers which is 
the same that the world's greatest teacher has exemplified by his 
life. It is, in a word, that neither book-learning, nor dry and 
siccant scholasticism, nor ancient lore, nor modern science are 
comparable, in lasting influence, with deep personal interest in a 
boy's right living. 

Never again, as in college, will a boy sit at the feet of instruc- 
tors ready to be guided by them into the paths of literature, 
science, law and religion. Woe be unto that instructor of the 
youth who divorces religion from learning, or who is so wrapped 
up in science that he cannot point out the hand of God in all that 
he seeks to impart. Few ministers of the gospel of the Son of God 
have such ready access to plastic hearts as the college professor. 
Every year they infuse love of knowledge into aspiring young 
hearts, and every year they send out young men who are to lead 
the world of intellectual thought. Alas! how often it is that the 
professor is so indifferent to the claims of religion, or is so en- 
grossed in his studies, or is negatively skeptical that the young 
hearts receive no moral or religious awakening from four years 
contact, and goes out into the world impressed with the transcen- 
dent value of knowledge and wisdom, but has had no impression 
from his instructor and guide to "seek first the kingdom of God 
and His righteousness," and with all his getting to get " under- 

There never has been a professor at the University whose 
influence for good was wider or more lasting than the good man 
whose memory we honor to-day. His active and fatherly interest 
in the moral and spiritual welfare of the students was realized and 
appreciated by all who came in contact with him and his social 
and genial disposition brought him into friendly relations with all 
who belonged to the student body during his connection with the 


institution. And even in those instances in which his influence 
for good and his personal solicitude for right-doing, expressed in 
private interviews sought by him, were not at the time effectual in 
bringing about immediate reformation, they remained in the 
memory of the erring boy and often eventually brought him to his 
senses and stimulated him to an effort at better living. He always 
appealed to the best instincts of the students, their sense of right 
and honor and the obligations of morality and religion. In his 
hands these never became weapons of offense; the student never 
resented his admonition and never felt that his advice was uncalled 
for and officious. His sympathy was so spontaneous and expressed 
with so much delicacy, that his reproof left none of that sting 
which is so often unintentionally inflicted by well meaning but 
tactless friends, upon young minds suffering from repentance for 

Whenever he saw a student going wrong he was impelled by 
his sense of duty, as well as his kindly nature, to interpose his 
influence and advice. I remember talking recently with one alum- 
nus who had become distinguished in his profession, of an instance in 
which Dr. Mangum's kindness and delicate thoughtfulness pro- 
duced marked results. The young man, who is and was then a 
high-strung and spirited fellow, had unfortunately gone off on 
some pleasure excursion and became intoxicated. It was his first 
experience and he was greatly mortified and humiliated. Dr. 
Mangum who had heard of it went to see him in reference to it, 
and said to him that he should not report the occurence to the 
faculty as he believed the offense was the first and knew that no 
momberof the faculty could regret it more than did the offender and 
that he should not even request him to pledge himself not to repeat 
the offence; that he relied entirely upon the young man's sen-,- of 
right and his duty to himself and the University as a preventative 
of further violation of college rules in that direction. So full of 
kindness, thoughtfulness and tact was the good doctor's admonition 
that he resolved that it should never DC said of him again that he 
was drunk, and never from that day to this has he been under the 
influence of intoxicating liquors. The course of treatment adopted 
by Dr. Mangum was exactly adapted to the needs of the student. 
A public disclosure and a requirement that he should take the 


pledge would, in all probability, have wounded his self-respect and 
carried him into other excesses in order to alleviate the suffering 
which such a course would have inflicted upon his sensitive spirit. 
He never speaks of Dr. Mangum except in terms of gratitude and 
love, and he attributes in great part his escape from the danger of 
contracting a habit, the most seductive and dangerous to men of 
his temperament, to the gentle, affectionate and considerate treat- 
ment received by him at the hands of the good man whose memory 
he will always venerate. 

Other instances of like character might be mentioned as evi- 
dencing the character of the man and the cause of his strong hold 
upon the students of the University. He seemed to enter into the 
feelings and experience of the boys and they felt his sympathy ere 
he had expressed it, and were on pleasant terms of intimacy and 
friendship with him, which was productive of many good results. 
No student who knew him well hesitated to confide in him and to 
seek his advice, and his easy affable and kindly reception of confi- 
dence endeared him to those who sought his aid. The genial and 
kindly humor which characterized him drew the students close to 
him, and they regarded him with such kindly affection that they 
did not hesitate to perpetrate practical jokes on him which they 
knew beforehand he would enjoy as much as the perpetrators. 
On one occasion he was lecturing to his class on the attractive 
power of eloquence and illustrating it by an instance in which an 
orator was so eloquent that his audience, quite unconscious of 
what they did, approached closer and closer until they quite sur- 
rounded him. As he proceeded to picture the scene the students 
by common consent, drew nearer and nearer to the good doctor, 
discussing a theme of which he never tired and wholly absorbed 
in his entusiasm until he came to a sudden stop and found the en- 
tire class crowded around him, apparently drawn to him by the 
attractive power of his eloquence. He looked at them an instant 
and then burst into a laugh so contagious that it swept the class- 
room and put an end to the lecture. 

But the students, and all others who heard him frequently, 
recognized that at times he was as eloquent as any man of whom 
he spoke and that though his eloquence was not quite that sort 
that might pull an audience from their seats, it was of a high order 


and permeated by his consecrated spirit and his pious and useful 
life, it attracted the affections of men, sometimes thrilled them with 
new and strange emotions, and always excited in them the spirit 
of high and noble endeavor. 

Dr. Mangum mingled freely with the students and sought in 
every way to influence them for good. He inquired what they 
read outside of the prescribed course and made valuable suggestions 
which were frequently of great assistance to students, who, for the 
first time, found themselves in the presence of so many books that 
proper selection was difficult. As illustrating his habits of inter- 
course with the boys and his solicitude about the books they read, 
an anecdote may not be amiss. On one beautiful Sunday morning 
the doctor, strolling about the grounds and seeing a student, William 
by name, but who otherwise shall be " nameless here forever mure," 
sitting engrossed in reading a book which seemed to give him a 
great deal of pleasure, walked into the room of the said William, and 
after the salutations of the day had been exchanged, inquired the 
name of the book he was reading with such evident satisfaction. 
William a little confused, answered promptly that it was " Pilgrim's 
Progress," and thereupon the doctor launched out into a discussion 
of the book, the purity of the English, its splendid allegory, and 
the divine truth which it so graphically portrayed, and of the 
pleasure it gave him to see his young friend so profitably engaged 
on the Lord's Day. And William sat and assented to the doctor's 
praise of the book, and bowed his acknowledgement to the compli- 
ment paid him, but never told Dr. Mangum, nor did the good doc- 
tor know that William was not reading Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, 
but one of Mark Twain's books. But William's conscience was 
never easy and whenever he afterwards told the incident, which 
he frequently did, with every evidence of extreme enjoyment, he 
always added with a sigh, as if to make amends for the deception, 
" God bless the Doctor." 

Ono of tho forces that went to shape Dr. Mangum's character 
was his brotherly interest in "poor folks." By this class of his 
less favored neighbors he will long be remembered and mourned. 
He was not a man to go and pray over a sick person and so make 
an end. He gave his sympathy and he shared his means to tho 
last day of his life. On one occasion he lost the sale of a house 


rather than allow a poor woman who had broken her arm and 
begged for a temporary shelter there, to be disturbed, and she oc- 
cupied it thenceforth to the day of her death. He believed in the 
brotherhood of men, in the communion of saints. Among his 
friends and associates many a one cherishes elegant little notes 
written by him, and at his best. 

Time would fail me to particularize his other labors. He often 
said that he preached every week to a larger congregation than 
assembled anywhere in the country. He wrote regularly for the 
Fashville, Texas and South Carolina Christian Advocates and occas- 
ionally for other church and some news papers. His pen was pro- 
lific, and he wrote with elegance and strength. In 1858, while 
pastor at Chapel Hill, he wrote and printed a book entitled "Myr- 
tle leaves, or tokens at the Tomb." In 1866 he wrote and publish- 
ed another book "The Safety Lamp, or life for the Narrow Way" 
and was re-writing it for publication when he was stricken with 
paralysis. In 1881, the So. Meth. Pub. House published a book of 
sermons by leading Methodist preachers and Dr. Mangum was the 
N. C. preacher selected to furnish a sermon. His text was "The 
Hindrances of the Gospel." At the Centennial of Methodism in 
N. C, celebrated in Ealeisrh, he spoke on "The Introduction of 
Methodism in Raleigh " and gave many historical facts of great in- 
terest. Just after the war he wrote a temperance serial story 
" Percy Brandon." He was getting up the material for the life of his 
kinsman, Judge Wiley P. Mangum, at the time he was stricken with 
paralysis. Mention has been made of his elaborate history "Prison 
Life in Salisbury." He was a member of the American Institute of 
Christian Philosophy. The limits of this paper forbid the reading 
of a letter from Rev. Chas. F. Deems, President of that great relig- 
ious organization, expressive of his appreciation of Dr. Mangum's 
talents and his devotion and esteem for his many excellent traits 
of character. 

He believed in the University, and deprecated any movement 
that threatened its growth and greatness. He once wrote — "I say 
that while I love the University much, I love Methodism more. The 
boys who go out from the University will exert a vast influence in 
the State. This influence is sure to be secured by some one denom- 
ination or several denominations. The question is: Will the 
Methodists claim and realize their share." 


For one hundred years this University has exerted greater 
influence upon the destiny of the people of North Carolina than 
any other agency. Dr. Mangum was firmly of the opinion that his 
church should be as strong as possible at the University and 
should sustain it. He believed it was not only best for Christianity 
in general, but best for the Methodist church. He said repeatedly 
that he had never known a Methodist student quit his church by 
reason of joining the University, and that he had seen many cases 
where they were made broader and more influential by such con- 
nection. And not only so, but he had known the church to gain 
influential and scholarly young converts from families in which 
there were no Methodists. He contended that for its own sake it 
was the duty of the Methodist church to support the University 
and that it could not afford to fail in this duty. This was no hobby 
he rode. It was a conviction born of wisdom, and though he may 
have lost influence with some zealous leaders in his denomination 
and given up chances of preferment by his insistence upon the 
Methodists earnestly supporting the University, he was endorsed 
by the moi'e liberal and progressive ministers and members of his 

He was intensely devoted to the Methodist church. He 
regarded it as the representative of Christ on earth. He remem- 
bered that Methodism was born in a Universit}- — one that was 
doubly barricaded against anything like Methodism by the domi- 
nant power and prejudice of the established church. It was no off- 
spring of religious fervor without knowledge. It was called into 
being by God himself to purify the church, rid it of its worldlincss, 
and to carry the gospel to the poor. The agencies for this great 
work of the Almighty were young scholars — not unlettered men 
of crude ideas, but trained students to carry the gospel alike to the 
spectacled pi-ofcssor and the ignorant toiler in the slums of London. 
"The world is my parish," was John Wesley's broad view of tho 
field of Methodist preachers. Catching the breadth and power of 
so inspiring a faith, Dr. Mangum wanted to see the Methodist 
church exert its influence among students and thinkers exactly as 
it docs among the lowliest and the most unlettered. He held that 
to do less was to invito a lowering of Methodism from the high 
plane upon which its great founder had placed it, and therefore to 


circumscribe its usefulness. The wisdom of his belief is already 
apparent. The University, strictly undenominational and knowing 
no sect, is, strictly speaking, as much a Christian institution as 
Trinity College, Wake Forest or Davidson. The only difference 
between them all in regard to religion is that in the University 
teachers and pupils from all the denominations meet on a common 
Christian plane and in the denominational colleges they meet on a 
sectarian plane. Both have their appointed missions to perform, 
and there ought to exist no antagonism between them. This was 
the position Dr. Mangum exemplified in his life, in his writings, 
and in his teachings. 

It must not be inferred from the intensity of his devotion to 
Methodism that Dr. Mangum was an illiberal Christian. While he 
was strongly loyal to Methodism, he was always ready to concede 
the good in other denominations. His last sermon was preached 
in the Presbyterian church in Newbern. The only thing which 
roused his indignation, was what he considered using the church 
in order to obtain power, whether political, social, or otherwise. 
He was always ready to denounce such attempts in severe terms. 

But my memoir grows too long. I must compress the details 
of his last days. I shall never forget the shock I experienced 
early in December, 1888. At Newborn in attendance upon 
the annual Conference, I had met Dr. Mangum who took a 
deep interest in the proceedings. On Monday morning, as I was 
going to the depot to take the train, the report came that Dr. 
Mangum was suffering from a stroke of paralysis. It was soon 
learned that it was partial and that hopes were entertained for 
his recovery. Loving friends gathered around him at the station 
and loving hands assisted him into the cars. He sat by his daugh- 
ter very quietly, his pinched face evincing pain. There was no 
word of repining. He tried submissively to suffer the will of God. 
At G-oldsboro, a few of his best friends, young men he had known 
in college, came to see him to evidence their affection by any 
slight service they might render. As they shook his hand in affec- 
tionate farewell, he could restrain himself no longer, but the tears 
coursed down his cheeks and his emotion was so great he could 
not speak. 

He came to his home in this " Sweet Auburn." The student 


body and the faculty were deeply touched by his affliction 
and lost no opportunity of showing their sympathy. Duys drag- 
ged slowly along into months, and before commencement ho had 
gained much of his strength and began to feel that he would be 
able to take his place in the class-room the next session. When 
the boys returned in August he resumed his duties, but it was not 
with his old time vigor and it was not long before it became appar- 
ent that his strength was spent and that his days were numbered. 
His will power kept him up, but with the new year he became too 
feeble to teach. He suffered greatly, but with christian fortitude. 
During his last illness, when his body was racked with pain, and 
nothing else could afford him relief, his daughter would read to 
him from the German hymn — 

Commit thou all thy griefs 

And ways into His hands, 
To His sure trust and tender care, 

Who earth and heaven commands. 

And also from that other inspiring hymn — 

Give to the winds thy fears ; 

Hope and be undismayed ; 
God hears thy sighs and counts thy tears ; 

God shall lift up thy head. 

Tho reading of these hymns seemed to give him courage and 
help him to fix his reliance fully upon God. 

He steadily failod, and at eight o'clock p. m. on the 10th of 
May he lost consciousness. On the night of May 10th he said to 
his wife and daughters that it was bed time and he would go to 
sleep. He kissed them each good night, turned over on tho bed, 
lost consciensness and never woke again until his eyes rested on 
the splendor of his heavenly home. He lost consciensness on Sat- 
urday, but did not die until Monday. 

The funeral services were held in the Methodist church in this 
place, and students, professors and citizens paid the last mark of 
respect to an instructor, friend and companion, who, after a well 
spent and useful life, had entered into that rest which remaineth 
to tho people of God. His death, at home surrounded by those ho 
loved most tenderly, was in accordance with the way ho wished to 
die. When at college, only nineteen years old, he wrote a poom 
" Whore I wish to Die " which is preserved in his scrap book. His 


own death was a fulfilment of that youthful poem which I do not 
quote for its literary qualities but to show how G-od permitted him 
to fall asleep in the way his youthful fancy had pictured as an 
ideal death. 


Oh! When the hour of death shall come, 

I do not wish to be 
Amid the gay and frolicsome, 

Whose hearts are filled with glee. 

I do not wish to breathe my last 

In wealth and luxury, 
With hearts with anxious care oppressed, 

Or filled with revelry. 

I do not wish to die upon 

The blood stained battle plain, 
Midst cannon's roar and war cloud's din, 

The wounded and the slain. 

I could not be content to die 

Upon the ocean deep, 
While stormy waves are swelling high, 

And tempests fiercely sweep. 

I would not die away from home, 

Away from every friend, 
While none but strangers near me come, 

To see my poor life end. 

But oh I I wish to fall asleep, 

Beneath the shaded cot, 
While evening zephyrs gently creep 

Around the silent spot. 

With friends to sooth my aching heart, 

With Jesus standing near ; 
Oh ! I could then from life depart 

Unmoved by pain or fear. 
E. M. College, Oct. 10, 1853. 


In the Chapel Hill cemetery the remains of thia good man 
await the resurrection. A plain marble shaft marks his last resting 
place, and upon it is an inscription from the Bible which was his 
motto through life. Not a great while before his death he told 
his wife that he wanted no inscription upon his tomb that would 
tell of his achievements, which he reckoned as naught except as 
they had been blessed of God. "But," said he, "when I am dead 
and can no more put my hand in love upon the shoulders of the 
students and give them loving admonition, and when no more I 
can preach the riches of the gospel in the pulpit, I shall want still 
to preach to all who look upon my grave." And his wife put as 
the inscription on his plain, simple tombstone the motto of his life: 
"In all thy ways acknowledge Him and He will direct thy paths." 



" Convey a libel in a frown 

And wink a reputation down."— Swift. 

T. M. LEE, 

In Clinton Caucasian. 

Awake I Dalmatia, soar the stars, among, 

And sing of that, I'll swear thou hast — a tongue. 

Come! seek in every latitude, supply 

Of food for scandal, else despairing die : 

Through every field, the hemispheres embrace, 

Where vileness lurk, or virtue finds a place, 

Extend the search : command the world's expanse, 

And strow thy seeds, from Borneo to France. 

Thy rich domains, in every nook, explore ; 

Go ! wreck some million characters or more. 

Condemn the just, the purest deed defame: 

The strictest virtue, damn by vilest name, 

And if plain arts, suspicion, fail to raise, 

By sneer approve : by innuendo praise. 

'Tis thine : the bitter scenes of earth supply ; 
At woe rejoice : deride the tearful eye. 
All hates are quicken'd ; enmities revive, 
They fuel added ; they are sure to live. 
While poisoned darts, that spite, envenom'd, sends, 
Makes foes of brothers, enemies of friends ; 
Re-open wounds, long since obscured from sight ; 
Make lovers quarrel, and make preachers fight. 

Say where thy dreaded influence best is seen? 

In Bridget's rags, or Madam's crepe de chene. 

The difference : that while Bridget plainly lies, 

Fair Madam's wit corrects deficiencies 

Nice points are added : each defect removed, 

Refined the whole, and in alembic proved ; 

Till all full-fledged to soar, it stands thus rich in, 

Scandal, first begotten in the kitchen. 

What B — dispenses wide, in filth and squalor, 

Relates her mistress in her mirrored parlor. 

Who makes — so deep in gossip, is she vers'd — 


Each lie, succeeding, greater than the first, 
Though oPt the stately condescends to borrow 
The very robes her cook will wear to-morrow. 

She, conscious of th' importance of her load 

Of gossip, hastes to scatter it abroad. 

The news, at sewing-circle, soon retails ; 

With fiendish joy, each character assails, 

While there, with genial souls, the hours are spent 

To clothe the Heathen, or some lie invent ; 

'Tis no great matter, how the former fare, 

If, but the last receive the proper care. 

And thus with pleasant gossip, each regales 

Her neighbor, with her repertoire of tales. 

Speaks generous maxims ; points a proper course, 

Can name a dozen dames, who wish divorce. ' 

Yet think not, Dalmace, that in age, alone, 

The secret of thy envious art is known 

For younger ones, thy doctrines, have imbibed, 

And to their names, the " gossip," have subscribed, 

In gentle ears, their venom they out-pour, 

Some vast deceit, or treachery deplore, 

Unknown to them, as 'tis to others new, 

Exaggeration base, or else untrue. 

All are created, but for selfish end, 

Which once attained, the d 1 scarce could mend. 




"How far do you call it from here to Jim Greer's, at the foot 
of Pond Mountain?" 

We had halted at a little backwoods country store after a 
rough ride of three hours on horseback, over a rugged, winding 
mountain road, and propounded this question, with the usual mis- 
givings, to the shirt sleeved store-keeper. A dirty looking moun- 
taineer with a silly expression of countenance, and on whom the 
famous " mountain dew" had evidently gotten in some of its deadly 
work, was sitting by, and, at a nod from the store-keeper, slowly 
arose with the importance and honor of a great undertaking in his 
whole make-up. Coming to the door he said : "You may take up 
that thar road," waving his hand towards where several roads led 
in various uncertain directions, "till yer come up here 'bout er 
mile ter whar Bill Brooks lives," — "Two miles" — interjected the 
store keeper, — and we made a mental memorandum — "one mile or 
two miles." "You come up to whar Bill Brooks lives," resumed 
the mountaineer, "and then yer keep the straight road pine blank 
till yer come ter whar yer see er sort er imitation white house 
right off down thar like," — and here he made a side ways motion of 
his hand downward to his right. Did he mean our left, we won- 
dered? " Bight thar yer take er left — no — er right hand and fol- 
ler up the creek about three mile, er maybe four, and then yer b'ar 
off ter yer left and keep the plain straight road. You can't miss 
it. I live right thar in er quarter of a mile of Jim Greer's." Here 
the store-keeper interrupted. " Mack you didn't tell 'em whar the 
road turns off ter the left thar at Concert." " When yer git ter the 
post-office thar at Concert," resumed the mountaineer, " you turn 
squar' off ter the left, — like this was the post-office here, and right 
thar is the road turnin' off." Here he leaned forward and with 
his bent hand made a rapid motion around an imaginary corner 
as if he were describing the motion of a comet through space, or a 
sky rocket in mid air. "How far is it from there to Jim Greer's," 
we asked. "Jim Greer's? Hits about half er mile, er a mile." 


" Aint it raorc'n that Mack?" queried the store-keeper. "Wall, I 
reckin hit mought be two mile. You know, I live right thar at 
Concert, an' hit aint fur from thar tcr Bill Greer's, an' hits in plain 
sight er Jim's." Then as we were about to remount he called out, 
"You jest keep the plain, straight road an' li It'll carry } t ou right 

Extraordinary statement, you think dear reader, after his pre- 
vious explicit directions. However, it was little more than we 
expected, tor we had had a month or more in the wilds, looking up 
and describing the extensive deposits of iron ore or ''mineral." as 
it is universally termed by the inhabitants, and had been put to 
the necessity of asking their directions before. 

As usual we took the route which seemed most reasonable to 
us, regardless of the directions given, and, somehow or other we got 
there. It was almost night fall, and twilight, on a wild mountain 
road, in an unfamiliar region where many miles intervene between 
any human habitation, is an impressive and awe inspiring season. 
We did a lot of hopeless beating about the cove, following one path 
until it gave out, then retracing our steps and taking another with 
the same result, until, when we suddenly came upon the cabin we 
were wrought up to such a pitch of nervous desperation that we 
would have welcomed the sight of any living thing, or any sort of 
human dwelling. 

The home, as is the universal custom in the mountain region, 
was situated at the lowest and most sheltered part of the cove, for 
the triple reason and purpose of protection against cold, compara- 
tive case of access, and nearness to a spring of water. From this 
point the ridges on each side sloped up densely wooded to the sum- 
mit two miles away in the darkening sk}'. Here around the house 
was a little clearing, some old apple trees, a big pile of wood, and 
near by the spring branch that flashed and rippled down the 
mountain valley and into the ghostly darkness of the primeval for- 
est It was your typical mountain house and, coming out bare- 
headed and with a coarse cotton shirt upon his bade, was your 
typical mountaineer. It was " the 'Squire." 

"Is this Mr. Greer. — Jim Greer?" we asked. "That's what 
I'm called herebouts," said he in a kindly tone. He was a huge 
boned, loosely built man with bushy head, brows and beard. His 


clothing was cotton, woven at home, and he wore a pair of heavy- 
boots one of which had been cut down to the proportion of a slip- 
per, either for the comfort of the wearer or to use the leather for 
other purposes. 

"We are mineral surveyors," said I, introducing myself and 
my companion. " and we want to take a look at the minerals on 
Pond Mountain. We were told to come here, and that you would 
be a good man to show us around." " Well, we'uns is poor folks, 
but I reck in we kin take ker er ye. Git down and go in." We 
dismounted, and going through a gap in the fence which served for 
a gate, walked down the crooked yard-path and stepped down on 
the " porch " whose loose and uneven boards rattled under our feet. 
A rude hand loom occupied one end of the porch and at the other 
was the added room of the log cabin. There were only two rooms. 
The whole side of the house, under the porch roof, was lined with 
saddles, harness, and clothing, with many articles of household 
and dairy furniture. 

By this time the squire had dispatched the horses, by one of 
the boys, to the barn, and soon came in. " Well, men, I reckin 
ye're about beat out. — Cory, Cory, fetch some cheers for the gen- 
tlemen ! Here, Jim, run to the spring, quick! " We were glad to 
accept the " cheer " offered, and sat down wearily, consicous of be- 
ing stared at wonderingly by half a dozen tow headed children of 
all ages and in all sorts of dress, all, however, keeping at a respect- 
ful distance. "I reckin ye're finding a right chance (considerable 
quantity) of mineral about here? Thar's been a heap er prospect- 
ing done, but I 'lowed I would wait till the money begun ter pass, 
before I stuck a mattick in mine. Hits too much work unless 
thar's some chance er sellin' it." Here he got up and felt along in 
the cracks and ledges between the logs of the house and produced 
a number of specimens, principally magnetites. 

By this time a fire had been kindled in the big fireplace of the 
annex (it was in midsummer) and we took in our "cheers" to sit 
down by the fire and examine the specimens by its light. The 
squire proceeded to give us the facts about them, and as usual with 
the uninitiated, dwelt long and glowingly upon trifling details con- 
nected with their occurence, which, though having no bearing 
whatever, are of a nature to strike the eye of such an observer. 


It is curious to see what superstition is inspired by the — to them 
mysterious — subject of mineralogy and how easy it is for them to 
believe in marvelous possibilities hinted at by a charlatan, from 
which idea it is difficult for a responsible and informed person to 
undeceive them. 

He told U3 how on the "j^an side of that nigh ridge" was a 
"lead" of some kind of mineral. "I believe hit's what they call 
chromos of iron (probably ochre) what they make so many color- 
ed paints of," said he. 

Soon supper was ready and we got a glimpse of his wife. She 
was an angular, spare built and snuffy, but withal of kindl} 7 appear- 
ance. She waited on the table, while we, the " men folks," ate, and 
the children looked on from various corners, the youngest keeping 
behind her mother. Corn bread, baked, burnt coffee without 
"sweetenin'," and a dish of fried ham, and another of eggs (a deli- 
cacy) was the menu. Rather let me add what was always present 
in unsullied excellence, — abundance of cool milk, and firm fresh 
butter, with the freshest of honey. 

It is true here in this mountain country more than anywhere 
else that those things furnished by generous nature are abundant 
and excellent in inverse proportion to those requiring the inter- 
vention of the refined mental ingenuity of mankind. Air, — there 
could be no purer or more exhilarating air under heaven; water, 
— the face of the earth does not furnish clearer " fountains of tears" 
than the everlasting mountains. It is literally a land flowing with 
milk and honey, where the crops grow almost without cultivation 
and where the flocks and herds fatten without feeding, — but oh, the 

After supper we resumed our place before the fire and the old 
man entertained us with a disconnected recital of regional events, 
until the comparatively late hour of nine o'clock. There wero four 
beds in this room, and two were occupied by the four boys, and 
the other two by my companion and myself. In this region it is 
usual to have only one sheet on each bed. The covering for us as 
guests was one heavy, " scratchy," woolen spread. A glance at tho 
other beds showed that this was a tribute to our "raising" for in 
every other case a second feather bed was used as a covering, tho 
sleeper thus occupying tho space between tho two feather beds. 


The old man retired to the other part of the house, and soon 
we " knew no more." We could respectfully suggest as a cure for 
insomnia, twenty miles exercise, dehors and on a horse, repeated 
every day until relief is obtained. Perhaps, gentle reader, you 
would prefer the insomnia. If so, we rest contented, our skirts are 
clear. We make no charge for the prescription. 

Did you ever dream of a succession of events, gradually and 
by slow degrees leading on to a climax, where a sudden noise is 
expected in your dream to occur? And did you not find that just 
in the nick of time, — just as the gun is aimed to fire, the noise does 
really occur which seems in your dream to be but the natural effect 
of the causes dreamed of? Generally it is the sudden creak of a 
piece of furniture, which is magnified in your dream to firing of a 
•cannon. This time it was a gun in reality and the sound of foot- 
steps outside gradually brought me to my senses. There was a re- 
tracing of the steps, a sound of letting down " drawbars," the neigh- 
ing of a horse in the direction of the barn, and, after a little, a re- 
turn of the footsteps to the house, across the loose boards of the 
porch and into the house, and all was still. Everybody seemed to 
be asleep except myself. I lay awake an hour attempting to solve 
the mystery of the gunshot and the footsteps, and finally, just as 
the faint signs of dawn made the small square window visible, I 
succumbed and slept until the voice of the old man bade the boys get 
up and do the chores. By the time we were nearly dressed one of 
the boys came in. I was telling my companion of the sound of 
'the gun and footsteps, and the boy said, — "That was dad that shot. 
Two fellers was tryin' to git your horses and dad saw 'em and shot 
at 'em." 

Before we left there we found out the particulars. I had al- 
ways heard of the almost unfettered hospitality of the mountain 
■eer, rude and uncouth though he may be, but I never before had 
realized to what extent the native kindness of his heart would go. 
We had, in making inquiries, a day or two before, divulged our 
intention of staying at this place upon this particular night. The 
information was appropriated, unawares to us, by a country rough, 
who sized us up and also our horses, — more especially our horses, 
which were young, spirited and valuable. An agreement was 
■made between him and another of his sort, to " borrow " them, and 


make off with them across the state line into Tennessee, and a 
whisper of it in some way came to the ears of this great rough 
mountaineer, the squire. 

He had sat up nearly the whole night near a little loop-hole, 
which goes by the name of window, in easy reach of his gun, while 
we stretched our weary limbs in slumber. 

Some day I will tell you of the mica mines of this region 
of North Carolina, whose unused tunnels and ghostly excavations 
have never known the pick of a white man, and show the work of 
a race dating back into the misty ages of the American mound- 
builders. Hunter Harris. 


After a very pleasant and profitable vacation the Magazine again comes 
to its readers with new hopes and fresh vigor. Since its last issue, impor- 
tant events have taken place in the life and history of the institution, of 
whose success we all feel the utmost confidence. With this issue the Uui- 
versity begins a new chapter in its career of honor and usefulness to North 
Carolina. The chapter just closed has been a bright and encouraging one. 
It is a record of difficulties surmounted, of obstacles encountered and over- 
come, of success finally achieved. The most prominent figure in this 
chapter is that of the retiring President, who carries with him the love and 
gratitude of the many students, who have helped to make his administra- 
tion a success. There are few men who could have filled his trying position 
so well. The great secret of his success was his undaunted devotion to, and 
filial affection for the institution, for whose success he has labored so faith- 
fully and so earnestly. 

His place is filled by another of the University's sons, in whose success 
she may feel proud. His enthusiasm and invincible energy is already seen 
in the management of the University. This new era has opened with the 
most flattering promises. Over two hundred students were on the hill, 
before the work of the University was begun. The number is fast increas- 
ing. The repairs and improvements on the buildings, the new arrange- 
ment of courses of study, the general enthusiasm and life which seems to 
pervade everything connected with the University, are all unmistakable 
proofs that we are at the beginning of a new and prosperous era. 

The many courtesies shown our new President while on his visit 
among the Northern Universities and the distinguished honor conferred 
upon him especially at Cornell University, show that the University of 
North Carolina is again recognized as a University, that she has again at- 
tained her former high place among the institutions of learning of the 
United States. 

Everything points to another period of growth and enlargement. Dr. 
Battle has fulfilled his mission. Dr. Caldwell established the University, 
Gov. Swain carried on his work and under him we had five hundred stud- 
ents. Dr. Battle was called upon to re-establish the University, and adapt 
it to new conditions, almost to a new civilization. He has succeeded ; his 
mission is fulfilled. The State itself is no more firmly established than is 
its University. Who shall say that the new era is not to be similar to that 


with which the name of Gov. Swain is so intimately connected? We verily 
believe that Dr. Winston is to be a second Gov. Swain, and that under his 
wise and able administration the University is to have a similar growth and 

We have heard it whispered in low and solemn tones that the Univer- 
sity was doomed to failure, that her glory was gone forever, that her final 
overthrow was only a question of time. Believe it, if you wish — but we 
who have seen her loyal and devoted alumni, with zeal and enthusiasm, 
discussing means of aiding and supporting her, we who have seen her 
students alive with the deepest interest and filled with glowing pride in her 
future prosperity, prefer to believe that before the close of the present cen- 
tury the brightest hopes of her most devoted friends will have been fully 

The Magazine. — At the close of last session, it was found necessary to 
increase the staff of editors for The Magazine from four to six editors. The 
business of The Magazine had become so much increased that it was im- 
possible for one man to attend to it properly. For this reason the Socie- 
ties determined to elect two business managers, who should have control 
only of the business, while the four editors should continue to do the liter- 
ary work of The Magazine. This arrangement will, we hope, enable us to 
give our readers a better magazine, and to get it out more promptly. We 
have been delayed in this issue by the necessity of changing our publishers 
but hope hereafter to be more regular and prompt in our issues. 

The present editors wish to express their personal and official gratitude 
to the former editors for their valuable and faithful work on The Magazine. 
Under them The Magazine was prosperous and sustained its former repu- 
tation as an able and conservative College Magazine. Of these editors, Mr. 
Davies is studying law at the University of Virginia, Mr. Collins pursuing the 
same course under Dr. Manning. Mr. Ransom is preparing to join them in 
the same pursuit, and Mr. Pearsall is editor of the Clinton Caucasian, Suc- 
cess to them all. 

This year there will be four departments, as follows: The Literary — 
conducted by Mr. E. P. Willard (Di.) ; the Book Review and Exchange — 
by Mr. W. E. Rollins (Di.) ; the Personal and Local— by Mr. C. F. Har- 
vey (Phi.); and the Editorial— by Mr. Geo. W. Connor (Phi.). The Busi- 
ness Managers are Messrs. W. E. Darden (Phi.) , and Howard E. Rond- 
thaler (Di.). These gentlemen will all take a deep interest in the success 
of The Magazine, and will give their best work for its success. 

There is one feature of The Magazine which we think deserves espeo- 
ial attention. It is to this more than to all others that it owes its success. 
We speak of its effort to encourage original work in the study of State His- 


tory. In its numbers before the war and since, may be found most valua- 
ble articles on prominent North Carolinians and historical sketches of 
greatest interest to the student of State history. All the volumes of The 
Magazine may be found in the Library, and we recommend them to 
our fellow students. Now, the present editors recognize the fact that 
throughout the State, at this time, there is a general desire to know more 
of North Carolina and her great men, and it is the purpose of the editors 
to have in each issue a well written article on some subject connected with 
our history. In this issue we are very glad to be able to publish the very 
valuable address on the late Rev. A. W. Mangum, D. D., by Mr. Josephus 
Daniels, delivered at the University last commencement. This will be 
read with great pleasure, we are sure, especially by former students of the 
University. We will also endeavor to have articles by the students on 
interesting subjects. 

The Opening. — The University has begun its ninety -seventh year with 
over two hundred and twenty-five students. The campus is full of fresh 
men, most of whom have come here to work. The law and medical schools 
are nourishing. Faculty and students seem to realize that we are at the 
threshold of a most prosperous era. The money appropriated by the legis- 
lature for improvements has been well used, and the south building has been 
thoroughly renovated. The chapel is now being greatly improved through 
the kindness of Mr. Worth and his sons, of Wilmington, to whom the stu- 
dents wish to express their sincere thanks for their very valuable gift. 

One of the most striking features of this opening to the old student 
was the almost complete absence of any hazing, even in its mildest 
forms. We venture to say that after seeing the effect of our resolutions of 
last spring, a most careful search would not reveal a single student who 
would favor a return to the old custom. "Mollies" and their "blacking 
parties" with their thrilling adventures at midnight, and their hair-breadth 
escapes from the Faculty will exist at the University hereafter, only in tra- 
dition. We are all glad that the practice of hazing freshmen has been 
abolished by the students at the State University. 

The Changes. — In the Personal and Local department may be found 
a list of the changes made in the discipline and courses of study under the 
new administration. These changes are in the right direction and have 
been made after careful and thoughtful discussion by the Faculty. The 
new schedule by cutting down the number of hours for recitation before 
dinner from five to four, has caused some inconvenience this year, but 
hereafter will work very smoothly. 

There is one change, however, to which we would like to call the atten- 
tion of the Faculty. That is the change in the commencement exercises, 


by which the valedictory and similar class honors have been abolished. 
We do not object to this change, but we think it hardly fair that it 
should apply to the present senior class. For certain members of this class 
understanding that the man who made the highest average in his college 
career would be the valedictorian of his class, have worked faithfully and 
earnestly now for three years in order to win this honor. But after the 
race is almost run, they are told that the honor is abolished, that there is 
no valedictory. "Whether there be such honors or not, certainly cannot effect 
this editor personally, but we respectfully call the attention of the Faculty 
to this injustice to certain members of the senior class. 

All the other changes have met with hearty approval from the students 
and they share in the Faculty's desire to see the University occupy its true 
position in the State. 

Athletics. — This important subject is receiving its due share of atten- 
tion at the University from both Faculty and students. The gymnasium 
has been refitted with apparatus costing over $400.00, and, now under the 
management of the popular and skillful Mr. Charles S. Mangum, ("91), will 
be a very im}3ortant feature of college life. All students are required by 
the Faculty to attend and take part in the exercises three times a week. 
This we hope will have a good effect upon the student body. Out-door 
sports are engaged in with great zeal and enthusiasm by the students. As 
the season for base-ball is over, tennis and foot-ball are the most popular 
sports just now. Capt. Mike Hoake says he expects to have a team of which 
we may all feel proud, and if he can infuse some of his inergy and enthu- 
siasm into his men, we do not doubt what he says. Ashe S. King and Fer- 
guson are back and the new students are promising. We sincerely hope 
that all the students will take an active interest in the welfare and success 
of our team. There are many ways in which you can be of no little help, 
and if you wish to know how, call on Mr. It. H. Johnston, Business Mana- 
ger for the team, and he will tell you. 

Comments. — The library has been greatly improved by the work done 
this summer, in the new arrangement of books. The books are no longer 
divided according to the societies, but according to subjects. For instance 
all the books, whether Phi, Di or University books on the subject of Polit- 
ical Science are all put in the same alcove. The new card catalogues are a 
great convenience and decided improvement over the old system. Dr. 
Alexander and his assistants have" done their work well, and deserve and 
have received the thanks of all the students. There are now in the libra- 
ry about 5,000 volumns of duplicates which will be sold this year and the 
proceeds used in buying new books. 



"Buck" Andrews is studying Mechanical Engineering at Cornell. 

Ashe is with the N. C. Geological Survey. 

Ball is taking a business course at Eastman. 

Bryan, recently elected librarian for the present year, Batchelor, Paul 
Graham and McKethan are studying law under Dr. Manning. 

Cunninggim has a position in the Agricultural Department at Raleigh. 

"Punch" Currie is at home, laughing and growing fatter. 

Dalrymple is Assistant Principal of the Greensboro Graded School. 

Davies is studying law at the University of Virginia. 

Eason is teaching at Elizabeth City. 

Fleming is teaching. 

Geo. Graham will probably study law under Dr. Manning. 

Lewis is on the U. S. Geological Survey in Tennessee. 

Mangum is our Gymnasium Instructor and will study medicine under 
Dr. Whitehead. 

Mott. Morehead is Professor of French and Mathematics in Leaksville 
High School. 

Patterson will take a course in Civil and Electrical Engineering at 

Ransom is sporting. 

Spoon has charge of the Diamond Drill of the N. C. Geological Survey. 

Thompson is teaching with his brother in Thompson's School, at Siler 

"Buck" Wills has charge of a nourishing school at Wilson. 

— During our absence for the summer, many changes and improvements 
have been made. The South Building has been entirely renovated from 
top to bottom. New floors, mantels, doors, windows and stairs have been 
put in, and the whole building newly plastered. All the recitation rooms 
have been made more comfortable, having been furnished with chairs. 
With the handsome donation of Mr. D. G. Worth and three sons, of 
Wilmington, the Chapel has been remodeled, and is to be carpeted and 
furnished with two hundred and fifty comfortable chairs. The organ will 
be presided over by Payson Willard, and the singing will be led by a select 

— " We have received a copy of a pamphlet bearing the title : ' The 
Perception of time. A Thesis. By John Morgan Cheek, '92. University 


of North Carolina, 1892.' It contains thirteen pages and is a capital in« 
tellectual tonic requiring very close attention, because it is philosophical and 
metaphysical. It is an able paper, and would have done credit to his 
teacher, Professor Williams. If Mr. Cheek can produce in his youth such 
an acute paper upon an abstract subject, what will he not be able to do 
when he reaches his full intellectual maturity? We have never seen a 
cleverer piece of philosophic reasoning from a youth. He gives much 
promise of distinction. Such able students are indeed a credit to the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina." — Wilmington Messenger. 

— The numerous friends af C. W. Toms, class of '89, will be glad to read 
the following extract from the Perquimans Record, published at Hertford, 
N. C. : "Tuesday, August 25, our quiet town was in a blaze of joyous 
excitement over the marriage of Mr. C. W. Toms to Miss Mary L. Newby 
on the above date. The parties named were united in the holy bonds of 
matrimony by the Rev. Joseph H. Riddick, aassisted by Rev. Mr. Robin- 
son, of Plymouth, N. C, at the M. E. Church, in the presence of a large 
and interested audience. The bride was handsomely toileted in a tan 
broadcloth, trimmed with heliotrope foille, gold ornaments, and diamonds. 
The groom wore the conventional black, and was in his best mood. Messrs. 
Nathan Toms, Sidney McMullan, T. A. Cox and J. S. Parker, handsomely 
attired, were the perfection of ushers for such an occasion. At 12:45 the 
doors between the vestibule and the main building were opened, and the 
wedding march began. To soft and soul enrapturing strains of music, the 
contracting parties (preceded by the ushers in perfect time) marched up 
the left aisle to the altar, where the marriage ceremony was performed in 
the most beautiful and solemn manner, after which they, followed by the 
ushers, marched down the right aisle to the door, where their carriage 
was in waiting to take them to the depot. After brief congratulations the 
happy couple left for a northern tour of some weeks. The bridal presents 
were numerous and costly, and displayed the taste, as well as the fervent 
friendship of the givers." 


— Wooten says Steve Bragaw is the " cheekiest" freshman in College. 

— The Y. M. C. A. room has recently been carpeted and otherwise 
greatly improved. 

— Two hundred and twenty-seven students have been enrolled to date, 
and still they come, 

— E. H. Johnston, '92, has been elected Business Manager of the Foot 
Ball Team, An excellent selection. 

— Bart. Gatling should be elected poet of the Senior Class. Ask for and 
read his latest production, " The Lost Lenore." 

— The handsome residence which Dr. Manning is having built on the 
vacant lot adjoining Dr. Venable's is nearing completion. 

— Exclusive of new students in Law and Medicine, just one hundred 
and three men- are on the Hill who were not here last year. 

— President Winston has appointed Mr. A. B. Kimball, of Granville 
county, his private secretary, and he has entered upon his duties. 

— Rondthaler and Charlie Toms recently left for home on account of 
sickness. Rondthaler has since returned, though Toms is still at home. 

— The Biological Laboratory has been moved to the room once used by 
the Phi society as a library on the fourth floor of the New East Building. 

— Alex. Stronach, who took the degree of B. L. last June, has become a 
partner of Judge Strong in the legal profession, with their office at Raleigh. 

— The President's, Bursar's and Registrar's offices have been moved to 
the rooms on either side of the middle entrance, first floor, of the South 

— Mr. John S. Hill, class of '89, who was recently elected assistant in 
English, has decided not to accept the place. The position has not yet 
been filled. 

— Wylie Street Jones will not gladden our hearts by his presence again 
this year, having decided to continue his course in Medicine at the Univer- 
sity of Virginia. 

— We notice Dan. Currie, '89, and William James Battle, '88, on the 
Hill. Dan. will teach school this year; Will, soon returns to Harvard to 
resume his studies. 


— A portrait of Dr. James IT. Dickson, an alumnus of the University, 
and a member of the Dialectic Society, has been presented by his wife to 
each of the societies. 

— One of our law-students was recently heard to compare "Sporty" 
Cook's moustache to faith — " the substance of things hoped for, the 
evidence of things not seen." 

— "Hube" Hamlen, '92, of Winston, has decided not to return this 
year, having been offered a position in that city. He will be missed, 
especially by the Glee Club. 

— Bob. Holt, who is successfully engaged in manufacturing at Burling- 
ton, and Sloane Huggins, now studying stenography in Richmond, Va., 
recently paid a flying visit to the Hill. 

— "Pos" Ransom and Hal Wood spent a few days with us recently, and 
their numerous friends were glad to see them. Their stay was short, as 
they claimed to have pressing business at home. 

— Captain Hoke of the foot ball team is now getting together and train- 
ing men from whom we expect to pick an eleven that will be able to hold 
its own. Capt. Hoke is the right man in the right place. 

— Dr. Manning has moved his law recitation room to the middle 
entrance of the Old West Building, first floor. Dr. Whitehead will have 
his recitation room just across the hall from the law room. 

— Matt. Pearsall has accepted a position on the staff of the Clinton 
Caucasian where he will be useful as well as ornamental. We shall all miss 
Matt., but wish him much success in his new field of labor. 

— Dr. Whitehead, soon after school opened, delivered before the 
students quite a practical lecture on the preservation of health. The sug- 
gestions were very valuable, and we would do well to act on them. 

— Perrin Busbee, '92, will not return this year, having accepted the 
position of instructor in the Raleigh Male Academy. Perrin was recently 
elected Captain of the Base Ball Team, and his place will be hard to fill. 

— Prof. Caswell Ellis has established a Classical High School in the office 
near Pres. Winston's home and has already enrolled nearly forty scholars. 
Prof. Ellis is a good teacher and we wish him success in his undertaking. 

— Dr. Thomas F. Wood, editor of the North Carolina Medical Journal, has 
made a very valuable donation to the Medical department, consisting 
of all the exchanges of the Journal and valued at four hundred dollars a 


— Lost ! — On the morning of the 11th of August a coat at Ronda. Don't 
remember exactly where it was left. Remember having it last at Dr. 
Hickerson's house. The finder will please return to the Di. Business 

— Dr. Venable has established a new course in Chemistry which is likely 
to prove very popular. It is to be an advanced course, supplementing 
the course in General Chemistry, and will also embrace the History of 

— We are glad to see out again Mr. H. B. Shaw, Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics, and Jacob Battle, who have been confined to their rooms by 
sickness for the past few days. Mr. and Mrs. Battle were with their son 
during his illness. 

— The Senior Class is smaller than usual this year, having lost Hamlen, 
Cheek, Busbee, Pearsall, Edwards and R. . Johnston. The two last-men- 
tioned will pursue a course of medicine under Dr. Whitehead. At present 
it numbers only fourteen men. 

— Dr. Venable is the happiest man in Chapel Hill, and he has a double 
right to his happiness. We are glad to hear that his "fresh class" is pro- 
gressing finely. The editors follow the example of one of our Professors and 
congratulate him with both hands. 

— We have never known, nor heard of, such a quiet opening as we have 
had this year. A very noticeable and commendable fact has been the 
absence of hazing in any form. The resolutions adopted last session in 
regard to this have been faithfully carried out. 

— The library books of the Phi. and Di. societies have been consolidated 
and catalogued under a new and convenient arrangement. The arduous 
work was accomplished by Dr. Alexander, Messrs. V. S. Bryant, Librarian, 
F. L. Wilcox, T. S. Wilson and B. Wyche. 

— Leave of absence without pay from July 1st, was granted to Prof. Holmes 
by the Board of Trustees. Prof. H. is now State Geologist, and is doing 
much valuable work toward the development of the mineral resources of 
the State. We regret very much to give him up. 

— The Trustees acted wisely in electing Mr. Hunter L. Harriss and Mr. 
H. B. Shaw to the positions of Assistants in Mineralogy and Mathematics 
respectively. Better selections could not have been made. Both are 
thoroughly familiar with their department and will do well. 

— The Durham Base Ball Team played a match game of ball on the 
University grounds with the Chapel Hill team several days ago. But the 
Chapel Hillians proved too much for them. They took the lead at the start 
and held it throughout the game, finally winning by a score' of 13 to 6. 


— We regret very much to learn that Shep. Bryan, recently elected 
Librarian, also two of his sisters are ill at Mrs. Graves'. Their parents, 
Judge and Mrs. Bryan, are with them. They are improving and we wish 
them a speedy recovery. "Wilcox and Wilson are now acting as Librarians. 

— At the opening of the session we were glad to have with us again for 
a few days John Stronach and Bob. Bingham. John is now doing a thriv- 
ing commission business in Raleigh. Bob. will study medicine again at 
the University of Virginia. Drew Patterson also spent a few days on the 
Hill then. 

— Mr. Hugh Miller, who held the position of assistant in the Department 
of Chemistry last year, has been elected to the Chair of Chemistry in the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College at Raleigh, and has accepted. This 
is quite a compliment and we are sure he will reflect credit on himself in 
his new position. 

— At the residence of Mr. J. C. Havemcyer, at Yonkers-on-the-Hudson 
on the tenth day of June, Prof. Henry Horace Williams was united in 
marriage to Miss Bertha Colton, Bishop Philip Brooks officiating. Prof. 
Williams and bride have arrived on the Hill, and to them the editors 
extend best wishes. 

— According to precedent, the students assembled in Memorial Hall on 
the afternoon of the twelfth of September to elect an orator for the Wash- 
ington Birthday celebration next February. Mr. Bart. M. Gatling, of 
Raleigh, was unanimously chosen, and we are confident that he will do 
honor to the occasion. 

— We deeply regret to chronicle the death of Miss Clara, daughter of 
Rev. and Mrs. J. B. Martin, which occurred at the home of her parents 
Sunday, August 30th. She was admired and respected by all who 
knew her, and at the time of her death was a consistent member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

— Andrews and R. Johnston, who were elected Business Managers of the 
University Magazine for the Di. and Phi. societies respectively, have 
resigned, and Rondthaler and Darden have been elected to fill the vacan- 
cies. Cheek, first editor from the Di. Society, will not return and \Y. 
Rollins has been elected in his place. 

— During the summer vacation, the University lost two of her brightest 
and best men in the death of Will. Bingham and Bynum. Both stood very 
high in their classes, and were deservedly popular with the faculty as well 
as the students. The Magazine deeply sympathizes with the grief-strioken 

relatives and friends in their bereavement. 


— The marriage of Dr. Richard H. Whitehead, Professor of Medicine, to 
Miss Virgilia, daughter of Rev. Dr. Paul Whitehead, was solemnized at 
Amherst, Va., on Thursday, the fourth of June. Soon after the happy- 
event, they sailed for Europe, from which they have but recently returned. 
The editors of the Magazine wish for them a long and happy wedded life. 

— The Annual Sermon before the Y. M. C. A. was preached in the 
Methodist Church Sunday night, September 13th, by Bishop Edward 
Rondthaler, D. D., of Salem. Bishop Rondthaler possesses rare scholarly 
attainments, and his sermon was greatly enjoyed by all who had the pleas- 
ure of hearing him. He is very popular with the students, and we always 
enjoy having him with us. 

— By the election of Dr. Stephen B. Weeks to the Chair of History of 
Trinity College, another University boy has been honored. Since taking 
the degree of Ph. D. at the University in 1888, he has been pursuing an 
advanced course in History at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Weeks is 
eminently qualified to fill the position to which he has been elected, and 
will make his department a success. 

— Mr. Chas. Baskerville, of Columbus, Miss., has been elected assistant in 
Chemistry. Mr. Baskerville was a student of the University of Mississippi, 
from which place he went to the University of Virginia, graduating there 
in the department of Chemistry. After his graduation, he pursued a post- 
graduate course in Chemistry at Vanderbilt. He comes highly recom- 
mended and to him we extend a hearty welcome. 

— New apparatus has been received for the gymnasium, and the classes 
have begun work. During vacation, Charlie Mangum the instructor, 
has been at Springfield, Mass., further fitting himself for his work — among 
other things, taking a course in boxing and fencing. All regular students 
are now required to spend a certain number of hours in the Gymnasium 
each week under the instructor's direction. We are glad to see the interest 
in physical culture on the increase, and hope it may continue to grow. 

— George Howell, who still holds first rank in his class at the U. S. 
Military Academy, sustained a painful, though we trust not a serious, 
injury last month. At Goldsboro, while out riding, the horse stumbled and 
fell on his leg, badly wrenching his knee. However, he has returned to 
West Point, and we trust that the unfortunate occurrence will not inter- 
fere with his studies. R. P. Johnston is also still holding his own near the 
head of the class. Both are University boys of whom we are justly proud. 


— From the paper of a neighboring city we clip the following, which has 
reference to one of our Juniors : 

Mr. T. — (walking into the parlor where Mabel and Sam have been con- 
versing sotto voce): " Well, what are you two talking about?" 

Mabel: " We were just speaking of our kith and kin." 

Little Lawrence — (who, unobserved, has overheard them, lisping): 
" Yeth, Papa, they was. Sam athed Mabel if he could kith her, and she 
said 'you kin'." 

— We take pleasure in printing the following extract from the News and 
Observer referring to Bowman Gray, who left us a few days after school 
opened to accept a position in the Wachovia National Bank, of Winston: 
" The Board of Directors have apjiointed Mr. Bowman Gray to succeed the 
late Mr. Geo. W. Brooks, as teller in the Wachovia National Bank. The 
new appointee is a son of Mr. James A. Gray, cashier of said bank. He is 
only seventeen years of age. However, he is a bright young man and will 
fill the position with honor and acceptance alike." 

— Prof. H. V. Wilson, a graduate of Johns Hopkins University, but for 
the past two years Biologist to the United States Fish Commission at 
Wood's Holl, Mass., and Prof. Karl P. Harrington, Professor of Latin in 
Wesleyan University, Middlebury, Connecticut, have been elected to the 
chairs of Biology and Latin respectively. Prof. Harrington is author of the 
book "Helps to the Intelligent Study of College Preparatory Latin." The 
Board of Trustees have made excellent selections, and the University is 
to be congratulated on securing these additions to her faculty. 

— To the Kaleigh News and Observer we are indebted for the following 
extract which shows that Dr. Hume is appreciated abroad as well as at 
home: "Dr. Hume, of the University, has been attending the National 
School of Methods at Glenn Falls, N. Y., and this is the way the Morning 
Star of that city speaks of him : ' Dr. Thomas Hume, who has created a 
deep interest and an earnest enthusiasm in the study of English literature 
and Anglo-Saxon, gave yesterday one of the most thoughtful lectures of 
the session on ' How to Study a Play of Shakespeare.' The lecturer selected 
the play of 'Hamlet' for his illustration and held the attention of his 
audience to the close, imparting to them his own enthusiasm. While 
exhibiting a thorough scholarship and a full knowledge of the ideas of the 
greatest students of Shakespeare, his own thoughts and original views were 
in no wise hidden or oppressed by them, and were received with marked 
admiration and approval. The lecture was altogether admirable, and on 
its conclusion the audience showed their appreciation by general applause. 
We are glad to see the Professors of the University winning laurels abroad. 
The truth is the faculty there is a very superior one.'" 


— The following resolutions were adopted by the students of the Univer- 
sity, Oct. 12th, after morning prayers. They were read by Mr. Boyden, of 
Salisbury. Mr. Harvey, of Kinston, and Mr. Mebane, of Madison, moved 
the adoption, and there was a unanimous rising vote. It was a grateful 
compliment : 

Resolved 1. That the students of this University, on this the first 
morning of the occupation of the re-modeled chapel, desire to express their 
grateful appreciation of the generosity of Mr. D. Gr. Worth and his three 
sons, all alumni of the University, who, by their gift of $500.00 have enabled 
us to use this beautiful and comfortable hall. 

Resolved 2. That we carefully use and protect the property thus gen- 
erously donated by our friends. 




1. The daily work begins at 9 o'clock. 

2. Absence from recitations is not an element in scholarship, but is 
matter for discipline. 

3. The only excuses for absence are sickness, (with the doctor's certifi- 
cate,) and absence from the Hill, (with permit.) 

4. Each student is allowed a gratuity of one absence a week out of 15 
recitations, which is intended to cover all trivial, accidental and other cases 
of absence. This gratuity must not be taken so as to produce a sum total 
of absences for the month, in any study, exceeding 25 percent, of the total 
exercises per month in that study. 

5. No conflicts are allowed. • 


1. Attendance upon prayers is required, except incases of religious 

2. The hour is 8:45 A. M. 

3. A gratuity of one absence a week is allowed. 


1. Noises and disturbances are to be confined to the play-grounds and 
the gymnasium. The following contract illustrates the theory of govern- 
ment, as to this point: 

contract for room. 

University of North Carolina, 1 
Bursar's Office, 189... } 

Mr , having paid Five Dollars entrance fee, and $ 

room fee, is entitled to the use of one-half of Room No , 

Building, and service from 189..., to 189.... It is 

mutually agreed that the Bursar shall provide satisfactory service and that 
the tenant shall be responsible for all damage committed in or upon the 
room during this contract, as well as for all damage committed by the ten- 
ant upon any University property. It is further agreed that any malicious 
damage or any malicious or repeated disturbance of college order shall be 
a forfeiture of all right to dwell in a college building. 




The following contract explains the theory of discipline: 
applicant's contract. 

University of North Carolina, ) 

Chapel Hill, 189...} 

In presenting myself as a candidate for admission to the privileges of 
the University, it is with the agreement that so long as I maybe a student 
in the University, I shall make good use of my opportunities for education, 
and shall conduct myself in a manner that is friendly to its interests. 
This is not intended to he a pledge of honor, but a contract, the breaking 
of which shall be a forfeiture of all rights to membership in the University. 



1. The same grades of scholarship are required, as heretofore, for 

2. Numerical marks of honor are abolished, and the ante-bellum system 
of groups is adopted. There will be three "honor-groups," corresponding 
to the old "first, second and third mite " groups. 

commencement speeches. 

1. Only six graduates will speak at commencement. These will be 
selected by competition. 

2. Any senior may compete whose general grade in scholarship reaches 
the point heretofore indicated by 80. The five best scholars in the Sen- 
ior English class in Essays and Orations may also compete, regardless of 
their general average of scholarship, provided they average over 70. 

3. The special orations, "valedictory," "classical," "philosophical," 
"scientific," &c, &c, are abolished. 


1. Monthly reports are abolished. 

2. Reports will be sent home three times a year, in Dec, March and 
June, after the final examinations. 


1. There is a special charge for rooms in the S. building. All others 
are free to those who pay the entrance fees. Law, medical and special 
students may occupy rooms without joining the societies. 

2. Rooms are not reserved beyond registration day, which is the day 
before the beginning of each term. After that the first comer has choice. 

3. Students have no right to sell or transfer rooms. 



1. Entrance examinations are held the two days preceding the 
beginning of each term. 

2. Conditions on entrance examinations must be made good within 
one year. 

3. Regular written examination of classes will be held in December, 
March and May. 

4. Special examinations for conditioned and deficient students will 
be held the two days preceding the opening in Sept. 

5. Conditioned students, (grade below 70) will also be allowed to 
stand the regular examinations with the next class. 

6. Deficient students (grade below 50) will not be allowed to take an 
advanced class in the same subject until they have made good the deficiency. 

7. Freshman conditions must be made up by the beginning of the 
Junior year. 

8. Sophomore conditions must be made up by the beginning of the 
Senior year. 

9. Seniors who have conditions will be allowed special examinations 
the last two weeks in April. 


Hall op Dialectic Society, 
Sept. 11th, 1891. 
Wheras, It has pleased Almighty God in His all wise and all 
provident foresight to remove from our midst our late fellow mem- 
ber Willie Bingham, be it therefore 

Resolved, That in his death our society has lost one of its most 
devoted and highly esteemed members and the University a most 
promising student. Be it also 

Resolved, That the Dialectic Society, of which he was a member, 
extend its deepest sympathy to the bereaved family and friends. Be 
it further 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of 
the society, and a copy of them be sent to the afflicted family, and 
also to the press of the State. 

A. B. Andrews, Jr., 
F. P. Eller, 
F. L. "Wilcox, 
Committee of Dialectic Society. 


Hall of Dialectic Society, 

Sept. 11th, 1891. 
Whereas, God, in His almighty wisdom has seen fit to remove 
from our midst our friend and companion, Wm. Preston Bynum, 
therefore be it 

Resolved, 1st. That the Dialectic Society has lost a valuable 
member, and we a cherished companion, whose conduct in our midst 
gave unsual promise of a bright future. 

2nd. That as a classmate he was brilliant, as a member earnest, 
as a friend generous, as a Christian true and faithful. 

3rd. That we hereby tender to his bereaved family oursincerest 
sympathy, and trust that the remembrance of what he was may 
prove a constant comfort to their grief stricken hearts. 

4th. That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the News and 
Observer, Statesville Landmark, and Charlotte Chronicle, and likewise 
be spread upon a page of the minutes dedicated to his memory. 

V. H. Botdex, 
G. H. Crowell, 
IT. E. Roxdthaler, 




Old Series Vol. XXII. No. 2. New Series Vol. XI. 



George W. Connor, W. E. Rollins, 

C. F. Harvey. E. Patson Willard. 

Howard E. Rondthaler, 1 -n • ir 

W. E. DardenI j Busmess Managers. 

Published six times a year under the auspices of the Philanthropic and 
Dialetic Societies. Subscription, $1.00. Single copy, 20 cents. 

Entered at the Post Office of Chapel Hill as second class matter. 



(We reproduce from the State Chronicle of Oct. 20, Mr. Page's speech, 
the sentiments of which should inspire new zeal into eveiy student and 
Alumnus of the University for oiiginal study in the solution of the Race- 

We note here with pleasure, that the Societies have begun to take the 
matter in hand, having appointed a committee to confer with the Faculty 
in regard to the furtherance of Mr. Page's suggestion, and we hope soon 
to see the plan take on a definite course, for in no way could the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina be better brought before the people of the United 
States than by this. — Ed.) 

Mr. President : — I greet you with the earnest congratulations 
that befit the taking on of a clear duty which leads to a high 

For it is much to have one's duty clear ; to have a clear duty 
that brings a high opportunity is all we can ask the gods to give. 

In a time when perplexities hedge men of energy and the 
right way is often hidden by the number of roads that lead to 


places of rest or to eminences of honorable toil, to you the way is 
straight. By the gentlest change the dignity of the past now 
takes on energy for the future. To the headship of this venerated 
institution, we that live on hope and not on memories, welcome 
you, pledging what help we can give, and, as workers in other 
ways, the cheer of most loyal comradeship. 

And this hour of your consecration is a time to us of solemn 
joy. The hopes wo build are high, for as we read our calendar it 
is a day of broadening opportunity. In our gentle contention with 
them that have sat in the way of progress all that we have ever 
asked is opportunity. 

And we are glad that it is you that have inherited this high 
trust; for, deep-rooted in the past and clothed with our best tradi- 
tions, you have kept pace to the quickened step of a new era. I 
greet you holding the hope of our most venerable institution just 
when our life swings forward into a larger day. 

And the gentleness with which great changes come and the 
old times blossom into new is a rebuke to our impatience; for how 
gently this movement forward has been taken I 

I see such changes even between my visits here, that the men 
who die between times seem at once to become part of a long-past 
epoch It was only the other day for instance that we had the 
good fortune (and it was an education in nobility and gentleness) — 
to have Professor Hooper here — the bearer of her stateliest pres- 
ence that ever clothed the form of man. And of all the fine sights 
of enthusiasm in the world there never was a finer than that we 
saw here for so many years — until just now — when Mr. Paul Cam- 
eron, on commencement day rose from his seat and very slowly, 
marched upon this rostrum, when the company began to sing the 
"Old North State." "Give me my hat," he said, and when some 
one gave it to him, with a flush on his ruddy countenance as beau- 
tiful as the rosy cheeks of childhood and his gray hair flowing, ho 
waved the hat above his head and cried out : "Hurrah I" "Hurrah !" 
You will never see a more spontaneous enthusiasm than that, nor 
a sight that you will remember longer. 

The very mention of only these two honored and honorable 
mon brings a different atmosphere from the atmosphere you 


breathe here now-an air laden with the perfume of a perfect cul- 
ture of its kind, that comes now as across the years in lonely hours 
comes the memory of our childhood. Yet the feet of these gentle 
and noble men have just now ceased to come and go with us ; 
and I am sure that their benediction rests on us. It would be a 
pleasure to-day to assure them that their memory is held dear and 
their characters shall guide us and their manners be our manners 
in the broader way that opens to us. 

And for this broader way it is a memorable privilege to be 
able to thank the clean hands and the noble aims of your prede- 
cessor ; for he it was that reconstructed the University when the 
mad revolutionists that desecrated it were driven from it as the 
money changers were driven from the temple. In a period of des- 
olation it was he who brought back again the fine spirit of the old 
times ; and he will live as the preserver and the transmitter of our 
best traditions. Him, too, we honor and love, honoring ourselves 
thereby. For in our annals his name is safe, and he has passed 
into our history before he is taken from our thankful companion- 
ship. The opportunity that came in storm to him, in calm he has 
broadened and transmitted to you. Thankfully remember, for all 
men will remember, that much of the reward that you will reap 
is of labor of his doing. You have a high place, made higher by 
his bearing in it. 

But this would be an hour of only idle compliment — unworthy 
of your purpose and of our solemn jubilation, if we forgot the 
breadth of that opportunity or failed to hold up a measure of it 

It were an event of little consequence if this change of Presi- 
dents did not bring a change of meaning. The retirement of a 
veteran to make place for a recruit is not an event worthy of cele- 
bration ; that were merely the even flow of things as men grow up 
and grow old. But this change is more than that, and in coming 
to your christening we think we come to celebrate the intellectual 
awakening of the people. 

For the one fact that it is now our duty to insist on as you 
take this high trust and we charge you to remember, is that this 
is the people's institution. Settle all mortgages to-day that all 
classes and sections of society have on you. Renounce forever 


servitude to ecclesiastism and party ism and set out to bo the rul- 
ing and the shaping force among the energies that stir the people 
and are making of our old fields a new earth, of our long slumber- 
ing land a resounding workshop. 

Rememboring that this is the people's institution, look with 
me for a moment over the commonwealth, and we shall see the 
most interesting social problem on the continent. 

These people sprung of hardy stock, living out of the currents 
of the world's activity, nurtured in the simple creed of frugality 
and reverence in a land where living is easy, have inherited a tra- 
dition that somehow education is a thing for a particular class; and 
here, hy a strange absence of events and by the accident of location, 
is one of the very sturdiest communities of the whole English race 
yet in the crude stage of development of a preceding century. On 
the hills alike of the Catawba and of the Roanoke a hundred years 
ago men followed plows of the Homeric fashion drawn by bullocks 
to make shallow furrows in little fields of new ground to grow 
little stores of corn. To-day alike on the hills of the Roanoke and 
of the Catawba you may see men following plows of Homeric 
fashion drawn by bullocks to make shallow furrows in little fields 
of new ground (now made new for the second time) to grow the 
same little stores of corn. Meantimo their kinsmen; men of Eng- 
lish stock, no whit more capable than they, have brought three 
continents under their sway and the rise of science has made new 
the intellectual life of men. Here alone, alike on the banks of the 
Roanoke and of the Catawba great change has come not and the 
creeds of a century ago have not flowed into wider channels. 

What a proof of the power of a hindering tradition ! Any 
other race would have lost its capacity. And what a tribute this 
is to the fibre of our stock ! For the people of North Carolina 
have not lost their capacity. Whenever an event of tho outside 
world has broken through our barriers of State pride, they have 
shown themselves capable, as for example, in our civil war. In 
that stirring time there wero uncommon men developed. They 
wont forth showing endurance and courage even when it was 
folly to bo bravo. 

Of tho influences that have chained them, ono was slavery, 
tho shadow of which falls long and lingers heavy j-et ; another was 


a pioneer church that hardened its emotional creed into an ada- 
mantine intolerance which fashioned for docile necks the yoke of 
petty ecclesiasticism, whose halter spared not this institution 
itself; worse than all was a subtle social creed growing out of these 
things that suppressed individual effort. I recall now how greatly 
I suffered in my own childhood because at our foremost school (it 
was then just over the hills here) the boys rated one another 
according to the military prominence of their fathers, and my 
father was so unthoughtful as not to be even a colonel. 

Under these influences the people have slumbered long, and 
have been the prey of small agitations (see how, for example, they 
lie bound by the straw of a Farmers' Alliance, led by them of the 
long beards, to whose dominating delusion our greatest and 
broadest and most honored and best beloved public servant paid 
the homage of surrender). 

Now, not in a spirit of blame (for who shall say who is to blame?) 
it becomes us to-day to see the truth — that during this slumber of 
the people this institution did not touch them. This institution 
was little more than the conservator of our best traditions, an 
asylum where the sons of gentle nature in a rough-time might 
breathe the air of a preceding era and become the contemporaries 
of their grand-fathers when their grand-fathers themselves were 
youths ; where they sat down with their ancestors on the easy 
terms of comradeship in years, manners, doctrines and ideals, and 
danced (when the preachers allowed it) with their own grand- 
mothers in their maidenhood. 

The strongest men, as a rule, have not been the men of your 
moulding. In every part of the commonwealth youth have gone 
forth to be shepherds of millions and leaders of men, whose hands 
are felt on the markets of the world and who are among the fore- 
most commercial minds in a commercial era. Yet they never felt 
the moulding touch of your hands in their youth and in their man- 
hood many of them are denied the power of repose and do not 
know the precious secret of refreshing themselves with the poets, 
or of finding, calm in the classics. Yet if our University had 
touched (could have touched) the people it would have touched 
such men, and to have fashioned them would have glorified the 


University as its traditions, noble in spite of narrowness, have 
sanctfied it. 

But the long, slumbering people are now waking, for a new 
influence has touched them. The love of gain has never failed as 
a goad, and it is not failing now. It is calling into activity all the 
dormant powers of the people. In old fields where time had hardly 
smoothed the furrows of slave plowmen, we have seen great facto- 
ries rise ; our people are becoming the builders of cities, the leaders 
of industry, the architects of fortunes. Wo are even told, on good 
authority, that within an area that has our mountains for its 
centre and this village on its outskirts, the coming masters of the 
markets of the world will live and work. So a new force is already 
come — a force that sets little store by ecclesiastical or social habits 
and that will soon mould a people of money makers and this 
change brings your change. 

The University in its new era must become a force alongside 
this new force — a dominating influence over it. For you know 
this sacred truth — that the race for wealth leaves the runners 
exhausted ; and men get punier as they grow richer. 

What is the proper measure of this new awakening? The 
measure of the men it produces, and this only. It is not the 
measure of the wealth produced. Neither here nor elsewhere in 
this time nor ever is the value of industrial life the sum total of its 
concrete product, but only and always the sum total of its man- 

And it is to you, and to you chiefly, indeed to you only, that 
wo have to look for the proper guidance of this new power. To 
the church we cannot look, for seldom has ecclesiasticism wisely 
directed wealth towards a broad development. While we are poor 
wo starve the church into mendicancy ; when we get rich it is 
unreasonable to expect it to show independence. 

Neither can we look to politics properly to direct our new 
industrial energy. Politics too clearly and surely profits by 
wealth and even by the prostitution of wealth for us to expect the 
wisest training of it. So, too, of the press. 

Now when this gigantic energy is newly released it brings a 
necessity, such a necessity as did not exist even in a period of 
inertia, for a broad balancing force ; and if you look for such a 


force will find it only here — here where our high traditions of a 
manly era centre, among which is the tradition that a true inde- 
pendence of character is better than riches. It is upon this tradi- 
tion of our earlier times that our salvation now depends. Look 
forth over the world and in spite of the increasing comfort alike 
of the few and the multitude, everywhere the dulling touch of 
money-getting has tamed men's generous impulses and there has 
been a loss of that virile and prodigal nobility of spirit that made 
the "old Southern gentleman" before he became grotesque, the 
most erect man that we have bred. 

If it seems absured that I speak here against the perils of 
wealth, I pray you remember it is not wealth itself you have to fear 
any more than it is from actual wealth that you now suffer; but it 
is the governing habit of mind that puts a pecuniary value on all 
things, and this habit of mind has already come. Already in most 
of our new towns you may see that type of man who, alter devo- 
tion to a narrow creed for several generations has been smitten by 
prosperity and now presents the spectacle of a gilded and rancid 
self-righteousness. So the danger and opportunity that now 
awaits us are the opportunity and the danger of our industrial 

The North Carolinian of the past we know ; we know, too, 
the North Carolinian of the present, and he is very like his ances- 
tor. What type of man this new industrial activity is going to 
make the North Corolinian of the future we can yet only guess, 
but this is the force that is going to make him. Let yours be the 
force that guides him. 

To guide him you must fall into line with him, along with his 
activity your activity must be felt. 

Now while an intimate connection between an institution 
of learning and the industrial activity of the people is easy to talk 
about, it is difficult to make. What is there, for instance, in common 
between your young men whose delight is reading Horace and the 
busy men who are laying the foundation of fortunes by the manu- 
facture of tobacco ? What can there be in common between an 
institution whose aim it is to introduce men to the classics, and 
the activity of men whose aim it is to sell town lots at a premium ? 
Of course, in a general way, this problem has to be met by every 


institution of learning, has to be met, indeed, by every individual 
of high intellectual inspiration. 

Nevertheless, I do not think there is an insurmouptable wall 
between these two kinds of activity, because University life has 
now become so diverse. It is simply a problem of adapting one 
force to another in a helpful way rather than in hindering 
way, although I may seem to go very far out of academic paths. 
I venture to point out one direction in which I think the two 
forces might be made yoke-follows, and that of course is in a line 
of work with which my own labors happen to have made me 

You have now here, lying all about you in the every-day life 
of the people, facts and tendencies that are the crude materials of 
one of the most interesting problems of this century, a problem 
that civilized men in every country are eagerly watching; a 
problem about which students of social science everywhere are 
making speculations ; a problem on which I dare say you could 
throw more light than has yot been thrown by all other students 
put together, because your opportunities are greater than the 
opportunities of other men. 

It is a problem in social development, a clear statement of 
which would bring a reputation that would be world wide, and 
the University by taking hold on it would put men oveiywhere 
under obligations to you and give the institution a new intellec- 
tual rating. It is simply this: 

What is to be the outcome of the living and working together 
of the two races ? 

Time long enough has elapsed since the emancipation of the 
slaves to show clearly the main tendencies that point to further 
development, and yet, except for a few facts that are thrown upon 
it by the United States census, there is everywhere a confusing 
mass of discussion, everywhere a lack of exact information. 
Would it seem to you too revolutionary a proposition if I were to 
suggest that you organize a scmi/um'um of social science and set 
your eager students to work as a body of enquirers to gather the 
facts in every county in tho State to show precisely what are the 
relations between tho two races, and in what respects these rela- 
tions have changed in tho last twenty-five years? If a company 


of twenty-five or thirty energetic young men were to go forth, one 
in one community and one in another, every one equipped with a 
set of inquiries upon which they had agreed in advance, and were 
to gather answers to these inquiries by their own investigation, 
and then if this whole mass of facts were brought together and 
properly classified and properly interpreted, I say that you would 
have a piece of literature on an important subject in social science 
that would be read and welcomed everywhere that studious men 
live. Nor do I believe that this would be difficult ; for there is not 
a newspaper in the State that would not feel proud to aid you, 
and every one could give great aid by opening its columns for you 
to ask questions, and you might have a volume of correspondence 
here from men, black and white, from every township in every 
county in this State even before your next commencement. If at 
your next commencement instead of orations on abstract subjects 
about which the learning of youth is so much gi-eater than the 
wisdom of manhood, you were to present the results of original 
investigations, I venture the prediction that there will be nothing 
published from any institution of learning in the United States 
this year that will be more interesting than of what you would 
put forth. I am sure, too, that the rigid training which may be 
got from the collection and handling of a large body of vital facts 
like this would be quite equal as an intellectual exercise to the 
training that is got in class rooms. 

But the main point is not simply that you would have achieved 
something worth the doing and that you would be doing good 
training work also, but more important than these is this: that 
by such work you would be sure to arouse every man who ever 
thinks, from one end of the State to the other, in your institution 
and in your work ; and many an old man who follows his bullock 
over his field of new ground to grow his little store of grain and 
has wondered whether the negro will always be the negro that he 
is, would have his attention arrested by the fact that the Univer- 
sity of all things in the world, was trying to solve and find out 
facts about which he too had given serious thought. He would 
have a profounder regard for University than he had ever had, 
and it might occur to him that it might benefit his son. If you 
once got the interest of the common people aroused in your insti- 


tution in such logical and natural ways as this, by creating a unity 
of interests and a unity of aims with the people, I think the day 
will soon come when your President would not have to wait on 
the legislature to secure an appropriation large enough to meet 
your expenses. It would be only a question to submit to a tax 
and a constantly increasing tax, if necessary, to perpetuate and to 
make broader the institute that reflects glory on the State and 
gives him food for his own thought to grow on. 

This, of course, is but one little suggestion along one line of 
work, and out of your fertility and the fertility of your faculty 
suggestions along many lines worth many times more than this 
will come. The single hint that I would drop is this, that in pro- 
portion as you lay hold on present conditions and show yourself 
interested in those things in which the people are themselves 
interested, you will place yourselves in a position where you can 
question and shape them, building up and balanciug their thoughts. 

So tbat when I said you are happy in having a clear duty, 
before you, I meant that you have not to face the perplexing 
questions of a complex culture, but a simple and primary task, 
fundamental, secondary to none, and more useful than mere aca- 
demic task, and when I said that this clear duty leads to a great 
opportunity, I meant the opportunity of doing the noblest and 
highest democratic work, the intellectual awakening of the whole 
people whose traditions you have perpetuated aud whose love you 
hold — a task that owing to the peculiar stage of their development 
and the peculiar circumstances of hindering, all the world will 
watch with interest ; and that the builders of commonwealths well 
might envy you. 

As we take up this task, we that look forward, (if I have 
earned a right to speak for them that look forward) beg to remind 
you, not in a spirit of admonition but in the spirit of work-fellow- 
ship, that there is but one courage and that is tho courage of 
truth, because there is but ono victory and that is the victory of 
truth, which is the invincible voice of God. This is our token. 

In consecrating yourself to this, therefore, swear that the day 
of compromises is done 1 To every mendicant tradition that shall 
ask favors of you; to every narrow ecclesiastical prejudice that 


shall demand tribute ; most of all to the colossal inertia that you 
inherit in whatever forms they come, in whatever guises they 
present themselves — to them all say with kindness but with firm- 
ness : 

Go honored, hence, go home 
Night's childless children: here your day is done, 
Pass with the stars and leave us 
With the sun. 



Ther's a sadness in the air, 
Leaves are falling everywhere 
In the grove, 
Down the lane. 

All the night and all the day 
Frosty fingers work away, 
Stripping trees 
Of their leaves. 



In the September number of the Century, E. M. Howe, a wes- 
tern journalist, has an article entitled "Country Newspapers," in 
which, in a manner true to the life and humorous, he tells of 
country papers, as he has found them. With some few exceptions, 
Mr. Howe's descriptions apply to the rural periodicals of North 
Carolina very forcibly. 

The soil of North Carolina is peculiarly adapted to the growth 
and flourishing of country newspapers. Our State is without large 
cities. Wilmington, our biggest town, with its 23,000 inhabitants, 
is in the strictest sense of the word, not a city. North Carolina is 
the provincial State of the Union, and the only one, excepting 
probably some new western states, that has no city of 50,000 or 
100,000 inhabitants. Consequently she is a State of weeklies. 
Every one of her 96 county seats has two. It is not risking 
anything to make this statement, for country newspapers go in 
pairs, dividing the patronage of their territoy or "field" which, 
while it would furnish a "good living" to the editor of one paper, 
thus necessarily inflicts two poor editors upon the community. 

I believe North Carolina has better country editors and news- 
papers than other states. Perhaps the very fact of its being a 
more or less provincial State, has something to do with this. Not 
having any great city to supply her with a great daily, which her 
citizens may swear by, as Virginians do by the Richmond Dis- 
patch, South Carolinans by the Charleston News-and-Courier, and 
Georgians by the Atlanta Constitution, it is incumbent upon North 
Carolina's country editors to exert themselves all the moru to sup- 
ply this want and to give their subscribers a country newspaper 
somewhat above the average. 

Perhaps another thing that goes to give this State good edi- 
tors is the mutual discussion as to how to improve their papers, 
by the members of the State Press Association, as they annually 
meet in convention. Tho papers read in these conventions are 
often found to reveal depth of thought, convincing argument and 
at times a sparkling wit. 


The convention also does a good work in establishing a fellow 
feeling between the editors, which goes a long way towards pre- 
serving journalistic harmony in the State. It is a heap easier 
to blaze away in rather discourteous criticism at some fault in an 
exchange when you don't know the editor, than it is to do so, 
after you and the same editor have staid all night together during 
the convention, walked arm-in-arm through the city, and mutually 
exchanged unimportant but charming little courtesies, such as 
"won't you have something?" "Thanks, don't care if I do." 

North Carolina newspaper offices are all alike. I remember 
well the first day I ever saw the Salisbury Watchman office. 
Ascending on the outside of an old brick store a long flight of 
stairs, half rotted by the rain that fell on them from" the roof 
above, I found myself face to face, on the platform at their head, 
with a screeching secession eagle painted on a white back-ground 
against the brick wall just to the left of the door that opened under 
the large letters "Watchman Office." This Eagle was full of 
secession and was letting it out. His wings were outstretched, his 
neck feathers ruffled and bristling, and you could see to an immense 
distance down his red painted throat. If he was doing Cerberus- 
duty at the entrance to the Watchman sanctum, he kindly let me 
by with nothing worse than violent demonstration. In fact he 
had roosted and demonstrated there on a shield with a star for 
each seceded state, for more than twenty-five years, and I have 
often thought that it was due perhaps to his persevering utterance 
of the secession sentiments of the editors, that led to the ruthless 
destruction of the Watchman's outfit by Stoneman's troopers dur- 
ing the war. They smashed up the presses and cast all of the type 
out of the windows. 

As I passed through the door, I stepped at one stride from tbe 
present to the past. The old office was "rich with the flower of 
antiquity." It was at one and the same time, editorial and repor- 
torial room, composing room, job office and business office. This 
did not, however, cause any confusion, as the editor wrote all the 
editorials, did most of the reporting, set type, superintended the 
job work, and received payment for subscriptions. The press on 
which the paper was printed was an ancient Franklin press, look- 
ing like an iron bedstead. Small busts of Washington and Frank- 


lin stood forth from the massive head piece. A curiously wrought 
old clock hung on the wall, its slow measured "tick-tock," forming, 
so to speak, the bass to the shrill tenor "click, click," of the type 
as they dropped in place through the deft fingers of the printers. 

On the wall General Wade Hampton smiled approbation, from 
out a luxurious growth of side whiskers, down upon the workers 
in the room. 

The Watchman differed a little from the typical Carolina paper 
in not having a couple of prints representing the latest democratic 
candidates for President and Vice-President of the United States 
hanging on the walls, but nothing so fresh or recent could be 
allowed to desecrate the hallowed antiquity of this ancient journal- 
istic haunt. 

An old square, box-shaped, iron store, cast at a Salisbury fur- 
nace before the war, stood and smoked in the centre of the room 
and close around this the editorial tables were ranged, all covered, 
as they were, with disarranged piles of exchanges, openened and 

In keeping with his sourroundings sat the editor, writing at a 
little cleared patch, which had been made from the primeval forest 
of exchanges surrounding and overshadowing him, on the very 
edge of the table. His thick silver gray hair hung down nearly 
to his shoulders, old age had stamped his features with the seal of 
the wrinkles and crowfeet, and the fingers that wielded the pen 
were long and bony. He was the veteran J. J. Bruner, who for 
fifty years was editor of the Watchman. I remember he always 
wore an old gray shawl, as he passed and repassed from the office 
to his home. He never was acclimated to the modern overcoat. 

Yes, the Watchma?i office was big with reminiscence and sug- 
gestiveness of the past. The shelves upon shelves of musty and 
ycllow-turnod leaves of the volumes of the old files, contained 
entertainment for weeks and months, and the taint of mustiness 
and yellow-leaves seemed to permeate the whole room. It was 
not necessary to refer to the head of the editorial columns of "the 
Carolina Watchman" to ascertain that the paper was established 
nearly 60 years ago. The fire as it roared with a muffled sound 
in the old stove ; the monotonous tones of the ancient clock ; the 
clicking typo as it fell in the stick ; the hurrying pen as it ran 


across the page, yes, all the voices of the old newspaper office 
seemed to murmer in soft, confidential whispers, (as if fearful of 
disturbing the old man, as he wrote,) — "Es-tab-lished, eighteen- 
thirty-one ; eighteen-thirty-one." 

The Watchman is a type of all the country weeklies of the 
State. The editor with occasionally an assistant does all the work. 
Two printers and a devil constitute the force at the cases. 

Mr. Howe in his article says "there ai'e four classes of men who 
usually own country newspapers : 1. Farmers' sons who think 
they are a little too good for farming, and not quite good enough to 
do nothing. 2. School teachers. 3. Lawyers who have made a 
failure of tho law. 4. Professional printers who have worked their 
way?" The last class is well represented in this State, but the 
representatives of the former three classes are few, I think. There 
are plenty of able men to be found between Currituck and Cherokee, 
who chose journalism for its own sake, and have spent their life 
trying to produce a good paper. The editor of the Statesville 
Landmark, by application and steady, hard work, without which 
no newspaper man can succeed, has made a reputation in his pro- 
fession, and when his name was mentioned for Governor several 
years ago he modestly remarked that he had rather be a good 
editor than Governor . But the editor of the Charlotte Chronicle 
is one man who is sick of his job. He is the great journalistic apolo- 
giser in North Carolina. The sins of journalists in general weigh 
heavily upon him, and he comes with his hands on his mouth, and 
his mouth in the dust, crying "God be merciful to us newspaper 
men." In an editorial of October 27, 1891, headed "The true esti- 
mate of journalists," the editor of the Chronicle says these things, 
among others: "The very ablest and wisest newspaper men can- 
not truthfully put a high estimate upon their services. They are 
really nothing more than clerks." "He (the journalists) is no 
authority on anything as a rule. There is not a journalist in 
America to-day that is an acknowledged authority in the elements 
of politics." "According to the theory of success he must advocate 
the claims of some men for places whom his conscience condems." 
"Let no journalist congratulate himself upon his profession," is the 
lugubrious conclusion. As a general thing, thougk, you do not find 
many country newspaper men but who claim to be important 


"moulders of public opinion." I never heard of another besides 
the editor of the Chronicle, who ever stuck his head out of the 
editorial window and cried "Unclean ! Unclean !" It is really unfor- 
tunate that a newspaper man whose editorials show hard study 
and great ability should havo no opinion whatever of his chosen 

Mr. Howe says country editors arc continually accusing each 
other of being bribed to utter this or that opinion in their edito- 
rials. I never knew of such an accusation made in this State, 
except once when the Progressive Farmer, the Alliance organ of 
Col. Polk, accused the State papers of North Carolina of being a 
grand "subsidized press." This was at the time the State press 
turned its guns on the Progressive Farmer for its attempt to cause 
Alliance legislators to disregard their instructions to vote for the 
re-election of Senator Vance. The utter absurdity of the accusa- 
tion that North Carolina editors, a number of whom wore cut-away 
coats to hide the patches in their pants, were bribed, was so appa- 
rent that the whole State broke out into a horse laugh. (I pause 
to remark parenthetically that one cut-away coat lasts a country 
editor through three generations of trousers.) 

Quite a number of Alliance papers have sprung up over the 
State since the organization of the Alliance, and naturally, because 
so many subscribers of country newspapers are farmers. Shortly 
after the death of Editor Brtlner in Salisbury, a bright young Salis- 
bury lawyer and myself took temporary care of the Watchman. 
We poured hot shot into young Ramsey, the associate editor of 
the Progressive Farmer, who was making attacks on Senator Vance, 
and whose red-head and "yallow" shoes had a State reputation. 
Several months later the Watchman was sold at public auction and 
it seemed to us the irony of fate that the little red-at-both-ends 
Alliance editor should have purchased it and made it an anti- 
Vance, Alliance organ. 

Somo of the country papers are quite unique in their choice of 
names, affording a relief from the monotony of such common- 
place names as the News, Chronicle, Times, Herald, Sun, World, 
Star, and the like. For example, wo havo the Ashovillo Citizen, 
the Statesville Landmark, Salisbury Watchman, Greensboro North 
State, Goldsboro Argus and Headlight, Elizabeth City Falcon, and 


Wilmington Messenger. The editor's evident belief in a white 
man's government is seen in the Clinton Caucasian, published 
where negroes are numerous. We have never yet, though, had 
the Tar-Heel. 

North Carolinians are more fortunate than their fellow coun- 
trymen of Virginia in not having the State Coat-of-Arms or some 
motto, inflicted upon them in the weekly visit of the county paper. 
All county papers incline toward the use of mottoes, especially 
Latin mottoes. 

Nearly every Virginia paper feels incomplete without the 
prostrate usurper, the conqueror, and the attendant motto "Sic 
semper tyrannis," with its title-piece. What saves us from the 
fate of Virginia newspaper readers, I am convinced, is the Coat-of- 
Arms is accompanied by no motto. 

The State has its full share of one-acre-and-a-mule country 
papers, run by the man who dosen't know enough to do any- 
thing else, among our many excellent papers. About two years 
ago we made a journalistic splurge, when the Asheville Citizen, 
under Capt. T. W. Patton, the Charlotte Chronicle, under Eobert 
Haydn, and the Durham Globe, under Edward A. Oldham, 
approached to the form and excellence of model city papers, but 
they were never properly supported, and did not last long enough 
to educate the people up to a thorough appreciation of them. 
Unless some of our present papers make an extra strenuous effort 
to build up in excellence, we will have to wait for a big city to 
grow up before we can have a big paper. 

Howard A. Banks. 



Winning Representative Speech, Delivered at the Commencement of 1891. 

For the endurance of our institutions, our government and 
our civilization, we have a steadfast trust in that written constitu- 
tion, to which England's great statesman, Gladstone, has paid high 
tribute. It is, indeed, remarkable that a formal instrument of 
government should have proved so well adapted to the genius of 
the American people and through so many important changes and 
for so long a period of time should have worked without serious 
friction or disorder. It is our boast that upon this constitution 
has been founded a government which neither time nor man can 

We believe in the eternal destiny of this Republic. Such has 
been the belief of all great nations. They, too, have trusted in the 
character and principles of their governments, — it is this trust that 
has proved fatal. The falsity of the belief that there is in govern- 
ment itself a mysterious power that guarantees its own per- 
manence is strikingly illustrated in the subversion of the Roman 
Republic. Here was a government based upon an "elaborate sys- 
tem of checks and balances," with a constitution affording ample 
protection against tyrrany and despotism, promising to the Roman 
an eternal life and destiny. The division of the executive, the 
tribuneship and, above all, the power of the citizens themselves 
seemed ample safeguards against a tyrranical despotism. 

These expedients, however, failed, as all mere expedients must 
fail. For, without violating a letter of the law, without depriving 
the citizens apparently, of the exercise of a single privilege, Aug- 
ustus subverted the Republic and established the Empire. Roman 
national character and national spirit had changed, and with this 
chango there arose a new civilization and a new government. No 
government can be maintained when it has lost the support of 
national character. A strong and enduring government must bo 
evolved from a people's past and established in their life and 
thought. No statesmanship, no philosophy, however true their fun- 
damental principles may be, can make a govcrment for a people, it 
must be made by the people. This is as true of the despotic 


monarchy of the Turkish Sultan as of the free, constitutional 
Republic of America. The English government and the English 
Constitution are strong and enduring because the English Consti- 
tution is the English nation. Its history is the history of the 
English people. In it there has been no attempt to create liberty 
or freedom. It has grown and developed with the growth and 
development of the English people. Magna Carta itself gave 
Englishmen no new liberties — it was simply a written guarantee 
of liberties and privileges, that had existed under Good King Ed- 
ward. In the English Constitution there is no system of checks 
and balances, no abstract theories of the natural rights of man. 
All is founded upon practise. 

Then the strength of England and the endurance of English 
civilization depends upon and is guaranteed by the national charac- 
ter and national spirit of the English race. Let this fail and all 
will fail. 

To what, then, shall we trust for the perpetuity of our liberties 
and our institutions? Shall we trust in that "elaborate system of 
checks and balances,'' in that written Constitution ? Does our 
strength lie in the truth and justice of our fundamental principles? 
Or is it in wise and patriotic officials that we must put our trust? 
Had these been our only hopes, we had failed before we began. 
Other constitutions have been founded upon theories equally just, 
equally true and they have failed. Before we inquire into the pos- 
sibility of failure in our own constitution let us see whether it has 
not already suffered important changes. 

That principle to the maintenance of which the Fathers trusted 
for the life and vigor of the Constitution was the distinct separation 
and perfect independence of the three great departments of govern- 
ment. By maintaining this principle they hoped for a true and last- 
ing Republic. But again and again this principle has been over- 
thrown. . It was disregarded by President Jackson, who in the 
removal of the deposits has set a most dangerous precedent — that 
of the Executive controlling the finances of the Federal govern- 
ment. Congress alone has power to declare war, yet President 
Polk forced affairs to such a crisis that he compelled Congress to 
declare war with Mexico. The Emancipation Proclamation and 
the Suspension of Habeas Corpus in territory at peace were acts 


destructive of this principle. The powers of the Executive have 
thus been extended from time to time, until that equilibrium so 
dear to the Fathers of the Constitution has been destroyed. 

Not only has the Executive thus transcended its constitutional 
limits, Congress also is no longer restrained by this principle. 
There is no power in Congress to annex new territory, yet this has 
frequently been done. Its history, especially since the late war, 
has been marked by the broadest interpretation and almost unlim- 
ited stretches of its Constitutional powers. The climax has been 
reached in the career of the late speaker of the House, who, by 
his violation of parliamentary usage and constitutional precedent, 
has shown unmistakably that the guarantee of American freedom 
and American constitutional government lies, not in our written 
Constitution, but in our national character and national spirit. 

Has not the supreme court preserved its purity and integrity 
of character? Yes, but congress by increasing the number of 
supreme court judges in order to obtain a favorable decision for 
the Legal Tender Act has shown what a dangerous and powerful 
influence the Legislative may exert over the judicial department. 

Our history proves that the Constitution is always interpreted 
in the interest of the interpreter. We know that even now impor- 
tant provisions of the Constitution exist only on paper — that the 
electoral college does not elect the President and that not be, but 
party needs and sectional demands appoint federal officers. Parti- 
san rivalry and the spoils system have so modified as to impair, 
nay, may I not say, even disrupt the fair fabric of the Constitu- 

Let the President secure a Congress subservient to his wishes 
and there could arise in America another Augustus who would 
build upon the ruins ofanothor Republic the American Empire. 
Give the control of the Telegraph and Railway systems to 
the Federal government, increase the countless army of Federal 
officers dependent on the presidential favor, pass a Federal Elec- 
tion Bill, giving the President control of the election of Congress- 
men, and virtually of Senators — then let the American Augustus 
begin his work. Not a letter of the Constitution shall be violated, 
not even popular elections or republican customs shall be over- 
thrown, and yet he may become the American Emperor. 


This would-be dictator, however, would find one thing lacking 
to the consummation of his despotic purpose — that is the destruc- 
tion of American national character and national spirit. This 
alone gives us strength and stability. This alone thwarted the 
purpose of the military hero of the North, it was this that checked 
the recent mad career of the politician from Maine. 

Our Constitution and our government must be the product of 
our national life and character. Those constitutional provisions 
which have been founded on the life and experience of our race, 
have endured and will endure. Those which were mere expedients 
have failed and will ever fail. Thus as is true of the English Con- 
stition, so the enduring Constitution of the United States is not a 
creation but a growth. 

As the nation grows and develops, this Constitution must 
grow and develop, new conditions and important changes in our 
national life and character must be reflected in the form and 
character of our government. The most important question for us, 
is how shall we preserve the purity and integrity of our national 
character? Preserve these, and those problems, which to-day 
seem to strike at the corner stone of our free institutions, will be 
solved without danger or detriment to our great Eepublic. 

What, then, is the true type of national character? It is that 
character represented in our Southern civilization, a character dis- 
tinguished for conservative progress, for that true and tried 
patriotism, which having its source in a strong love of local self- 
government and individual liberty, radiates through the family, 
the church, the sovereign state, into the larger and fuller life of the 
nation. Let this be the type of American National Character 
and it alone will be sufficient guarantee of the permanence and 
future glory of this Eepublic. 

Geo. W. Connor, Class '92. 



The United States are about to celebrate the four hundredth 
anniversary of the discovery of America. We involuntarily stop 
at the mention of the number. Four hundredth ! Is it possible! 
Have there been only four hundred Novembers since that third of 
November when the bold mariner and christian first beheld the 
island of Dominica? Have there been but four '92's since that 
Sunday morning? It is even so. Still more startling is it when 
we recall that two hundred of those years had passed before the 
European had scarcely begun his settlements in the new world, 
that with the exception of a very small strip along the Atlantic, 
and a few small inland trading posts, this whole country from 
Hudson's Bay to the Gulf of Mexico and from ocean to ocean was 
a vast, primeval forest with the red man as its king. The acme 
of wonder and amazement is reached in the contemplation of the 
fact that only seventy-five years ago the great city where the cele- 
bration is to be held was a trading post with a few white men 
and red men, that where now immense wharves stretch out into 
the lake, then the moss covered trunk of some fallen tree afforded 
the Indian entrance into his canoe. 

These things fill us with pride, no less than wonder. As we 
have in the material development of our country outstripped any 
instance the world's history affords, so we have surpassed all other 
nations in the rapid upbuilding of our great temples of learning 
and in the great work for humanity that we have done through 
inventions, and through our religious and benevolent institutions. 
The untried problems of government that we have experimentally 
proved are a pride to us, and a benefaction to mankind. 

As a wise people and that the glories of the present may bo 
but earnest of the future, wo must now and constantly here- 
after guard our country and its institutions from all dangers. 
There is too much truth in the charge made against us that we have 
yielded to a blind faith in the inherent possibilities of our land 
and have never provided for an emergency until it was upon us. 
Tho forecast of our future reveals one tremendous problem that is 
even now demanding our wisest thought. Immigration. We 


must understand however that there are two classes of immigrants, 
to only one of which the observations here offered are intended to 
apply. Throughout Enrope there will be found to-day just as in 
the early days of our national existence, some who are studying 
the advantages of our country with a view to moving here. These 
are thoughtful, earnest men who realize that life is a contest, and 
the basis of its success is labor. They calculate the relative con- 
ditions of life in their own country and in this and deliberately 
determine to come here or to remain where they are. If they 
come it means to them the adoption of a new country, of identify- 
ing their own interest with the interest of its inhabitants, of for- 
ever renouncing their former allegiance, of making new friends, 
new neighbors. This class it is our interest to encourage. 

There is another class who are induced or driven to immi- 
grate by causes vastly different from those animating the first 
class. Some of these causes are pauperism, criminality, disease 
and contract labor. To this class will our remarks apply. 

I have said that immigration is a grave problem resting upon 
us for solution. Why is this so? An article like the present one 
does not afford scope for the full treatment of the subject, but a 
fair idea can be obtained. The coming of foreigners to our shores 
could never be a source of danger to our nation unless they came in 
very large numbers, for the capacity of the nation to assimilate 
them would be ample protection. As a fact, however, they do 
come in vast hordes until the swarms of Goths and Vandals that 
overran Southern Europe sink into insignificance by comparison. 
Even if they do come in large numbers where lies the danger? 

First, a very imminent danger threatens the existence of our 
native population. A strange fact exists growing out of 
immigration, one that appears so improbable as to be almost 
absurd, but, which is nevertheless a fact. It has been shown by 
Mr. Francis A. Walker that the number of births from our native 
population, has decreased in almost the exact ratio that immigra- 
tion has increased. In the forty years from 1790 to 1830 the 
increase of our population was practically entirely by births among 
the natives, for immigration was then very limited, and that 
increase was marvelous in its rapidity. About 1830 the tide of 
'immigration began to indicate something of the proportions it has 


reached [to-day, but in spite of the great annual additions thus 
made to our population we increased no more rapidly than the 
ratio of increase by births maintained during the forty years alluded 
to demanded that \vc should increase, showing that there must 
have been a marked falling off in the number of births among the 
natives. This falling off still continues. Mr. Walker thinks the 
reason for such a strange result is found in the revolution of social, 
industrial and domestic conditions the advent of the immigrant 
effects in a community. If this alleged fact be true, and it has 
reason and figures to sustain it, then the native population cannot 
hope to maintain itself for another hundred years against the 

The standard of morals, of religion, of education among these 
immigrants is much lower thau ours, and unless we are willing 
that our great middle classes should be no higher than the igno- 
rant peasantry of Europe then we must set our faces against their 
degradation. In them is our hope, for if they be corrupted, if 
they have the sense of decency and the ambition hitherto charac- 
teristic of American citizens crushed out of them, then is the solid 
foundation of our government and our social fabric gone. 

"Princes and lords may flourish, or may fade, 
(A breath can make them, as a breath has made) 

But a noble peasantry, their country's pride, 
When once destroyed can never be supplied." 

Our immigrant comes to us with an entire incapacity for 
government. He has never exercised that function in his own 
country, knows nothing of free institutions, and often mistakes 
freedom for license. When he is clothed by our laws with the 
right of suffrage he is not as well fitted for its intelligent use as 
would bo the twelve-year old son of a native. The immigrant of 
the first class, described in a former part of this article, should bo 
invested, with as little delay as is consistent with a proper allow- 
ance of time for understanding our system of government, with the 
power of suffrage, for it is to our iuterest that he bo made to feel 
that ho is a part of our community and has a responsibility 
imposed upon him. But the immigrant of tne second class cannot 
be appealed to in this way, because of a lack of capacity, and 
because the motive of his coming is foreign to the exercise of such 


a power. Beside this incapacity he often comes to us with a posi- 
tive hate for us and our institutions which of course unfits 
him forever foi the duties of citizenship. To the policy of protection 
that the Nation has adopted is to be attributed the inception of this 
hate, which is brought about by a very simple process. The tariff 
on certain lines of goods often amounts to a prohibition of the 
import of those goods, which sometimes so seriously affects the 
manufacture of the goods abroad as to shut down the mills. This 
throws out of employment the operatives, and brings starvation to 
them and their families. Under such circumstances, it cannot be 
wondered at if they should curse the government that, by its laws, 
sent starvation and death to their homes. By a strange fatality, 
these very men must come to our shores to seek the only redress 
that lies in their power, namely, employment in the same industry 
here that our laws have crushed out abroad. A government 
can hope to exist only when its citizens maintain a healthy 
moral sentiment, have a pride and interest in their country's insti- 
tutions and a certain veneration for its past. None of these qualities 
grace these immigrants. Can we be surprised then if, in those cities 
where the foreigner gains the ascendency, and this must result 
since he shows a decided tendency to congregate, indeed has 
already resulted, he should tinge that city's government with a color- 
ing extracted from his former environment, which may be as unsuited 
to us as is the white dress of a Southern woman to an inhabitant 
of Labrador. 

When the foreigner obtains a controlling power in the man- 
agement of local affairs there will be put into his hands one of the 
most vital interests that can claim the attention of a citizen of the 
United States. Vital not only the to civil establishment, but to all that 
is most dear to us, — our religious, domestic and social habits. 1 
refer to our public school system. Aside from the christain relig- 
ion, this system has done more than any other agency towards 
making our population intelligent and broad-minded and imbueing 
their minds with sentiments which as a nation are distinctively 
our own. It is through this medium that the principle of relig- 
ious freedom has been transmitted from generation to generation, 
and through which we have learned the lesson that all men begin 
life equals and that labor, which alone brings personal merit either 


of wealth or of culture, and not birth, forms the basis for prefer- 
ment. In our country has been planted, and in our public schools 
has been nurtured, the simple, but glorious truth that 

" Learning is an addition beyond 

Nobility of birth ; honour of blood, 

Without the ornament of knowledge, 

Is a glorious ignorance." 

In childhood and youth the civil and domestic ideas are 
received that shall in subsequent years find expression in the estab- 
lished institutions of government and of society. If then our public 
schools, which have subserved so well the interests of our country, 
shall fall into the hands of the foreigner, can we wonder if 
future years shall bring a changed order of things, an order that 
will not be the natural result of increased enlightenment, that will 
not be indigenous, but an order that will be the result of a shifting 
of masters, an order that will trace its origin to the hovels of 
Europe in ignorance and in religious serfdom, a change like that 
the Norman fired upon the Briton and which it took the latter 
nearly six hundred years to throw off. 

A very pertinent inquiry in connection with this question is as 
to the fitness of a foreigner for citizenship with us who has sworn 
eternal allegiance to the potentate who sits upon the papal throne. 
What to us would be the value of his services should ever a decree 
from the Vatican conflict with his duties to us ? The world's history 
is too pregnant with examples toallowof doubtabout the result. The 
delusive hope that such a conflict will never arise may afford con- 
solation to some, but a wise government should trust its welfare to 
no such fortuitous condition of things. The same wise foresight, 
as dangerous as it is admirable, that enabled the Pope and his 
legates to weave the very genius of the English laws into the 
ecclesiastical establishment of that kingdom, may ultimately fasten 
upon the citizens of this country a system of pontifical regulations 
harsher and more rigorous than wore the indulgences, dispensa- 
tions, privilegiene clericale and peter pence upon the inhabitants of 
Brittain, and from which our statutes of mortmain and praemunire 
might never liberate us, bo they framed never so wisely. 

I have but indicated the most patent dangers to which, 
through immigration, we are liable — namely, the threatening of 


the purity of our race, our moral degradation and the probability 
that our government may fall into alien hands. I must leave to 
the thoughtful reader the pursuit of this subject in its details, 
when the degeneracy of our social life, the debasement of domestic 
conditions and the introduction of industrial complications that 
follow upon the advent of these immigrant armies will appall and 
sicken him. 

Our nation must awaken. I do not say this in the demagogi- 
cal stereotyped way, for when I say "our nation" I do not mean 
only the assemblage of law makers in Washington City, but I mean 
the people, I mean the individuals of each community, I mean you, 
reader, for be assured that when we arise and say this thing must 
be remedied, the national legislature will respond. Then, do you 
know anything of this danger? Do you understand its propor- 
tions? Are you ready to act intelligently in the matter? or are 
you a living illustration of the truth of the charge that we cherish 
a blind, unreasonable faith that our nation possesses the inherent 
vitality necessary to throw off any parasite that may prey upon it ? 

P. B. Manning. 



University of North Carolina, > 

Chapel Hill, N. C, Oct. 17, 1891. ) 

Whereas, Divine Providence has seen fit to remove from us our 
worthy member and beloved friend and patron, Honorable Walter 
Leak Steele, LL. D., be it 

Resolved, That in his death the Dialectic Society, of which he was 
a zealous member, has sustained a heavy loss; the student body a 
genial and kind hearted friend; the University a faithful adherent 
and helper, to whose every call he responded with a generosity 
begotten of love, and the State which he so ably served, both at 
home and in the nation's council, a conscientious and valuable son. 
Be it also 

Resolved, That the Hall of the Society be draped in mourning 
for thirty days and that copies of these resolutions be sent to the 
bereaved family, and to the University Magazine and the State 
Press for publication, and that they be spread upon a page in the 
minutes dedicated to his memory. 

T. B. Lee, 1 

K. A. Jones, i Committee. 

Maxcy L. John. J 



University op North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, N. C, October 17, 1891. 

Whereas, God in His all-wise providence called from our midst 
yesterday our honored and beloved friend, Col. Walter L. Steele. 

Whereas, Col. Steele was a man of kind heart, tender sympa- 
thies, noble impulses, whose friendship was valuable because con- 
sistent and true, yet undemonstrative. 

Whereas, He possessed those qualities which adorn and elevate 
society, and exalt and ennoble human character. And 

Whereas, He has left a high and noble name, a reputation 
unspotted and untarnished, a priceless legacy to his posterity, an 
enduring heritage to his State and country, and an example which 
should inspire those who follow, to seek the aims he sought, and 
to secure the exalted ends which he attained ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That in his death, the State has lost a faithful patriot, 
the University, one of its most ardent friends and able supporters, 
the church a true and consistent member, the students a wise coun- 
sellor and his community a useful citizen. 

Resolved, That we tender to the Dialectic Society our sincerest 
condolence in the loss of so worthy a member. 

Resolved, That we desire to extend to the bereaved family our 
heartfelt sympathy in this their hour of sorrow and grief. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to Mrs. 
Steele, a copy to the Dialectic Society, a copy to the University 
Magazine, and that they be spread upon the records of the Philan- 
thropic Society. 

P. P. Winborne, 

F. C. Harding, \ Committee. 
W. P. Wooten. 


During the past year the University has sustained three very heavy 
losses by the deaths of Mr. Paul C. Cameron, Col. VVm. L. Saunders and 
Col. Walter L. Steele. These, three dovoted alumini always served their 
alma mater faithfully and wisely and will long be remembered with affec- 
tion and gratitude by Faculty and students. Their lives have reflected 
honor on the institution which they loved so well, and our younger alumni 
will find in them worthy examples, which they would do well to follow. 

Since our last issue Col. Steele, always the friend of the students, has 
gone to answer to the longer roll-call of alumni. There was probably no 
man in the State whose death would have caused keener grief among the 
students. We all looked forward to the coming of Col. Steele as one of 
the most pleasant features of commencement. We all, Faculty and 
students, felt that he was our personal friend. As soon as the sad news 
reached us the two Societies met and appointed delegates to attend the 
funeral at Rockingham. Appropriate resolutions will be found on another 
page. The University is fortunate, however, in that she has younger 
alumni who will come forward and in time take his place, as a wise coun- 
sellor of the Faculty, a warm friend of the students and a wise and faith- 
ful Trustee. 

What We Are Doing. — There have been many improvements in the 
University during the past three years, but one of the most notable and 
most desirable has been the great change for the better in the general 
spirit of the University, both in faculty and in students. Year by year we 
are reaching a higher ideal of the work winch we are to do. One of the best 
evidences of this is the original work required in the preparation of theses 
in several departments. For instance, in the Mental and Moral Science 
Department each student is required to prepare an original thesis on some 
subject connected with his special study. More stress is put upon this 
work than upon the mere momorizing of text books. The following are 
some of the subjects of these theses : "The Origin of the Idea of Space," 
"Conceptualaism and Nominalism," "The Origin of the Religious Idea," 
"The Idea of Justice," "The part Fooling plays in Religion," etc. Such 
work gives an excellent training in careful investigation and accurate 
thinking. Again in the new Department of History, besides the excellent 
work done in the lower classes, there is an advanced class which is now 


making special investigations in the colonial history of North Carloina. 
The "Culpeper Movement" will be studied well and the results of the 
investigations given in original theses. The Freshman English Class is 
working up Longfellow and his poems by a through and scholarly method. 
The Class is divided into sections of ten each, each section having a special 
side of the general subject to investigate. The results of these investiga- 
tions will be put in the form of essays. Some of the subjects are "Long 
fellowat home," "Longfellow andhis Friends," etc. The Sophomore Class is 
studying the early part of the eighteenth century in the same manner. 
The Professor of Chemistry has offered a new course in chemistry, in which 
each student will be required to prepare a thesis. This is the kind of work 
the University ought to do. We are glad to note also that in all the 
Departments the number of advanced students has increased greatly, 
especially in Modern Languages and Mathematics. Now, with the fellow- 
ships that have been established, the University of North Carolina will be 
able to rise, although gradually, to the true ideal of University work. We 
look for this as a consummation much to be desired. 

The University Clubs. — The Shakepere Club has re-organized for 
this year with Dr. Hume as President, Prof. Harrington, Vice-President, 
Mr. Connor, Secretary, and Mr. Winborne, Treasurer. At the first meeting 
Richard the II. was the play under discussion. Mr. John Hill read a very 
interesting and instructive paper on the character of Richard II. Mr. 
Wooten discussed " Duelling," in a short but very entertaining paper. At 
the second meeting Love's Labor Lost was on the programme. Mr. Rollins 
traced, in a very creditable paper, " Foreign Influence on English Life." 
Mr. Van Noppen discussed, in a very original and happy manner, " The 
Dialogue in Love's Labor Lost," while Mr. Darden read the first part of a 
paper on Shakspeare's Education. At the November meeting, the Club 
will make a very interesting study of the Sonnets, special attention being 
paid to the question whether it is true that " with this key Shakspeare 
unlocked his heart." It may be interesting for some of the former mem- 
bers of the Club to know that " The Thomas Hume Shakspeare Club " has 
been organized at the Baptist Theological Seminary, at Louisville. Also 
that " Shaksperiana," the best Shakspeare journal published in this 
country, has asked Dr. Hume for permission to give its readers his picture 
in one of its issues, together with those of other eminent Shakspere scholars 
of America. 

The Glee Club has been re-organized and under the supervision of 
Profesor Harrington promises to be quite a success, with sixteen well- 
trained voices it will be able to give some very creditable concerts. Mr. 
Rondthaler is Business Manager and Mr. Lee the Leader. 


The number of Tennis clubs has increased greatly, there now being 
at least a dezen, all of which have nice courts. This game, which Prof. 
Williams says is the student game is very popular here and affords 
pleasant and heathful exercise for the players. 

Comments. — We would like to call the attention of the Faculty to a 
very serious inconvenience to many students from the East. It has been 
the custom here for the examinations to close on Saturday. This has made it 
necessary for the Eastern men to ask for very early examinations on Satur- 
day morning commencing at seven oclock. This is not only an inconven. 
ience, but a real hardship for these men. They are foaced to get up at five 
or six in the morning and go on examination without, in many cases, get- 
ting breakfast. They are thus at great disadvantages when compared with 
Western men. But they have either to do this or wait over until Monday 
which is not only a matter of delay in getting home but is really an extra 
expense. It would be a very easy matter the Faculty to begin examina- 
tions one day earlier and thus stop on Friday. This we respectfully ask 
them to do. 


The Vassar Miscellany for October contains several articles of high 
literary merit. 

All of our exchanges are on file in the Library. The students will find 
them very interesting reading. 

The Free Lance, of the Pennyslvania State College, is one of the most 
attractive journals upon our table. 

The first number of the University Ottawa Owl contains an extended 
and scholarly editorial on "Religion in Education." 

The Vidette- Reporter is a breezy tri-weekly published by the students 
of the State University of Iowa. It is a most welcome visitor. 

The October number of the Davidson Monthly has reached our sanctum, 
a new dress and a larger sheet would doubtless add to its appearance. 

The Guilford Collegian contains some good editorials, but one or two of 
them dip into politics and are, therefore, out of place in a College Journal. 

The University of Pennsylvania, Red and Blue, is spiced throughout 
with original verses. If we would do likewise we might develop more 
Class Day poets. 

The most noticeable feature of the Trinity Archieve for October, is that 
it contains a scholarly article on "The first Libraries in North Carolina," 
by Dr. Stephen B. Weeks. 

The Athenaeum, of West Virginia Uuuiversity, is a frequent and wel- 
come visitor. The energy displayed by its editors in getting out such a 
semi-monthly is commendable. 

The Elon College Monthly presents a neat appearance and is a dignified 
College Journal. Some of its editorials are long and drawn out, but the 
October number has won our admiration. 

We are in receipt of a Scholarly addresss on "The life and services of 
Brigadier-General Jethro Sumner," delivered at the battleground of Guil- 
ford Court House, July 4th, 1891, by Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

The Exponent, of Emory and Henry College, Virginia, deems it neces- 
sary to remind its contributors that it "is strictly a college magazine and 
neither a newspaper nor science monthly." Right you are. A college 
magazine that admits politics and general news into its columns, is fear- 
fully ignorant of its mission. 


The first number of the Magazine had gone to press when the first of 
our exchanges greeted us with its appearance. Since then they have been 
coming in rapidly, until now we find such a file upon our desk that it is 
almost bewildering to attempt a thorough review of them all. But there 
is so much in common between college students ; their mode of iife, their 
interests, their work and their recreations are so nearly one that it is a 
genuine pleasure to dip into the various College Journals — which are but 
indices of this common life — and behold the image of ourselves. The 
breezy editorials upon whatever is vital to college life, the productions of 
fresh budding genius like our own, and the pithy locals of our exchanges 
are a source of continual delight. Our task then, though large, is not 
without vital interest. 

The Polo Alto, of the Leland Stanford, Jr., University, is upon our 
table. It claims to be the first college journal published semultanoously 
with the opening of a great University. The first number is merely an 
account of the opening exercises of the University, but Palo Alio will, no 
doubt, soon take a high stand in College Journalism. 

The Wake Forest Student for October fully sustains its reputation and 
crowns itself with fresh laurels at the beginning of the college year. The 
editor is getting at the heart of things when he says that "one eraor of the 
college press to-day is the sacrifice of home productions to the excellence 
of foreign merit." 


Cricket has invaded Yale. — Ex. 

Davidson College has 140 students. 

There are 190 College papers in the United States. — Ex. 

The University of Michigan will erect a Grecian temple at the Colum- 
bian Exposition. — Ex. 

Princeton seniors will wear cap and gown throughout the year. — Ex. 

Last year Harvards class orator was a negro, this year a Japanese. — Ex. 

Foot-ball in every form has been prohibited by the University of 
Heidelberg, Germany. — Ex. 

The late P. T. Barnum has left $40,000 to Tuft College to found a Bar- 
num museum of Natural History. — Ex. 

The Guilford Collegian thinks that a College Press Association sould be 
formed in this State. So do we. 

440 students have been admitted to the Leland Stanford University, 
and over 1,100 applications for admission have been made. — Ex. 


we've all been there before. 
The saddest time in our College course, 
Of saddest there be any, 
Is when we want to buy a "horse" 
But cannot raise a penny. — Ex. 

England with 94 Universities, has 2,734 more professors and 51,814 
more students than the 360 Universities of the United States. — Ex. 

Harvard expends $16,000 annually on her liberary, Columbia $2,000, 
Cornell $8,000, Yale $9,500 and Princeton about $4,000.— Ex. 

The Wellesley girls have been measured and the average waist measure 
of the 1100 students was found to be 24£ inches. — Ex. 

The roof of the new Yale gymnasium is to be entirely of glass. It 
will be the second largest roof of the kind in the country. — Ex. 


(1) (2) 

Puer ex Jersey Ille approaches 

lens ad school, magnus sorrow, 

Videt in meadow Puer it skyward 

Infestus mule, Funus ad marrow 


Qui sensit a thing 

Non ei well known 

Est bene for him 

Relinque id alone. — Ex. 

The University Cynic, Vermont is arranging to have a series of articles 
on different phases of College life to save the Freshmen of much sad 
experience. An excellent idea ! 

Professor Harriet Cooke, professor of history in Cornell is the first 
woman receiving equal pay with the men pofessors. She has taught in 
Cornell 23 years. — Ex. 

There are in the United States 28 National Greek letter fraternities 
among the male students. There are 638 Colleges represented and there 
is a membership of 92,279. They own and occuppy 64 chapter houses. — 

The total endowment of the great Leland Stanford, Jr., University 
lately opened at Palo Alto, California, will amount to considerable more 
than 20 million dollars, Columbia is the next best endowed institution in 
this country with $8,000,000 and Harvard comes third with $7,000,000. 

An Engligh paper has started a foot-ball insurance system. Foot-ball 
players are insured against fatal accidents for the sum of £100. A penny 
secures this benefit, in addition to buying the paper. — Ex. 



Little Johnnie had a mirror 
But he ate the back all off, 
Thinking, rashly, in his terror, 
This would cure his whooping cough. 

Not long after Johnnie's Mother, 
Weeping, said to Mrs. Brown, 
"It was a chilly day for Johnnie 
When the mercury went down." — Ex. 

Oberlin is talking of changing its Fieldday to a Greek "olympiad." 
The proposition is to dress the heralds in Greek costumes, call the events 
by Greek names, introduce the hurling of the javelin, an oration by the 
President, crowning the victors with crowns of leaves, and the singing of 
College songs by the multitude. — Ex. 

The cover page of the Palo Alto is amusing. It represents the various 
degrees, offered by the University, in the top of a tall tree. Some of the 
boys are climbing as fast as possible while others are hastening to begin 
the ascent. The girls, feeling a delicacy in thus ascending, are hurrying to 
the tree with ladders, by which they mean to scale the dizzy heights and 
pluck the object of their ambitions. 


"Fair 'ox-eyed' Juno, be my wife," 

Says Jove in mystic story; 

"We'll live a happy and godly life 

On Elysian heights of glory !" 

"Ah Jove, you're jovial," laughed she, 

"But why for me be crazy?" 

"Because you're the flower of heaven," cried he 

"You're a little ox-eyed daisy." — Ex. 


Mebane and Peschau will spend the Christmas Holidays at Tarboro. 

Mr. H. A. Gilliam, a brilliant young law student of the University, 
was in, the city yesterday. — News and Observer. 

Who was the young lady who was about to kiss "little Patty with the 
big brown eyes" when he fell off the street car at Raleigh ? 

T. M. Lee attended the annual convention of the Delta Kappa Epsilon 
Fraternity which was in session at Cleveland, Ohio, November 11th and 

Matt. Pearsall was on the Hill shaking hands with his numerous 
friends a few days after the Inauguration. Matt speaks of going to Cali- 
fornia in January. 

James Sawyer spent several days at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, at the 
annual convention of the Phi Gamma Delta Fraternity which met there 
November 27th. 

Bowman Gray, of Winston, witnessed the foot ball game at Raleigh 
between University and Wake Forest. After the game at Raleigh, he spent 
a day on the Hill with friends. 

W. W. McKinzie, a member of the Medical Class last year, spent a 
few days on the Hill just before leaving for Jefferson Medical College at 
Philadelphia to pursue his study of Medicine. 

Professors Gore, Venable, Cain, Wilson and Harris attended the Octo- 
ber meeting of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society at Wake Forest. 
Papers were read before the society by Professors Wilson, Venable and 

The legal contest over the will of the late Mrs. Mary Smith has been 
settled by compromise, and the University will receive between $35,000 
and $40,000. The will provides that the money shall be used for instruc- 
tion in Agricultural Chemistry and kindred branches. 

John Rodman, of Washington, N. C, is now pursuing a course in 
medicine at Bellevue College, New York, and we are told that he is really 
studying. This is perhaps due to the fact that there is no Professor of 
Modern Languages at Bellevue whose door he may tie with ropes or for 
whom he may place chairs in the dark passages. 


Pete Murphy was with us a few days in October. He has since entered 
the Law Department of Washington and Lee University. 

R. T. Wyche, better known as ''Bobby" Wyche, is now General Sec- 
retary of the Young Men's Christian Association at Concord. 

Will Ashe paid his old friends a short visit recently. He was on his 
way to Cornell University where he will take a course in Geology, Forestry, 

The Faculty have very generously made tennis courts for the numerous 
clubs organized this session, and have greatly improved those already in 
use. There are now nine courts in College. 

Pi of. F. M. Harper, class '88, who has been Principal of the Raleigh 
Graded Schools for the past three years, has resigned and is now Superin- 
tendent of the Graded Schools at Dawson, Georgia. 

Gregory, who, in September, stood a successful examination before 
the Supreme Court for his license, has returned and will take the degree 
of Bachelor of Law next June (the degree P. Cook hopes to receive in June, 

Prof. E. P. Mangum, who has been Principal of the Asheville Graded 
School for three years, has been elected Superintendent of the Concord 
Graded Schools at a good salary, and has accepted. We are glad to know 
that he is meeting with the success which he deserves. 

Through the kindness ot Mr. B. F. Hall of Wilmington, copies of the 
Baccalaureate Sermon preached by Rev. Dr. Walter W. Moore last June, 
have been distributed among the students. Mr. Hall heard the sermon 
and was so much impressed by it that he had these copies printed at his 
own expense. 

The Fraternities have elected the following editors of the "Hellenian" 
for the present year: McKethan, Beta Theta Pi; Biggs, Zeta P*i ; Batch- 
elor, Phi Kappa Sigma; T. B. Lee, Phi Gamma Delta; Kenan, Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon ; Little, Alpha Tau Omega; Moye, Sigma Nu ; Cook, Kappa Alpha; 
Harvey, Delta Kappa Epsilon; C. F. Toms, Sigma Chi. They have met 
and elected Biggs Editor-in-Chief, and McKethan and Moye Business 

The University Glee Club has been organized as a double octette with 
the following members: Arrington, Arthur, F. II. Batchelor. Gotten, Har- 
ris, Hoke, T. M. Lee, McKinne, Mangum, Peschau, Price, Rondthaler, 
Roberson, Snow, Willard and Zachary. It is the intention of the Club to 
visit several places in the State some time soon, perhaps during the Christ- 
mas Holidays. 


C. D. Bennett, for two years a member of '92, is with the Smithdeal 
Hardware Co., Salisbury, N. C. 

Matt DeVane, an old member, of '91, is now travelling for Bailey Bros, 
large Tobacco Manufacturers, of Winston. 

The Senior Class have elected the following officers: W. Rollins, 
President; Foust, Prophet; Gatling, Poet; Mebane, Historian; Darden, 
Orator; Harvey, Marshal. Class Day is Thursday, April 15th. 

George Graham, our veteran full back, paid us a short visit several 
days ago. He is now farming at Stagville, but found time to attend the 
game of foot-ball in Raleigh between University and Wake Forest. 

Alex. Andrews, who has been quite sick for some time at his home in 
Raleigh, and Ward, who has been sick with fever at Watson's Hotel, are 
out again, we are glad to know. Brooks (not the orator), and Merr,itt are 
still on the sick list. 

The University German Club has been reorganized, and placed on a 
firm basis. V. H. Boyden is President, S. A. Ashe, Vice-President, Geo. 
L. Peschau, Secretary and Treasurer, W. R. Kenan, Leader. It now num- 
bers over forty members. 

Five fellowships, each yielding $200 annually and free tuition, have 
been founded by the alumni of the University. Mr. Howard Banks of 
Asheville, a graduate of Davidson College, was the first to win one of these 
fellowships, he having won one in English, though there were four other 
applicants. Mr. Banks is also Assistant Professor of English. 

The German given by the University German Club in the Gymnasium 
Wednesday evening, October 14th, on the occasion of the inauguration of 
President Winston, was a complete success. Mr. Kenan was chosen 
Leader by the Club, and performed his duty admirably. 

The following young ladies lent additional pleasure to the dance by 
their presence: Misses Janet Badger, Lucy Hawkins, Annie Busbee, Berta 
Smith, Mary Hardin and Margaret Hinsdale, of Raleigh; Miss Jessie Kenan, 
of Wilmington; Miss Mary McRae, of Fayetteville; Miss Mamie Heartt, of 
of Durham; Miss Isabelle Graham, of Hillsboro, and Misses Laura Payne 
and Eleanor Alexander, of Chapel Hill. 

The dancing continued until after three o'clock in the morning. To 
Mr. Boyden, the President of the club, the success and pleasure of the 
evening was largely due. 

Paul Graham attended the marriage of his uncle, Mr. Benehan Cam- 
eron, to Miss Mayo at Richmond, October 28th. 

The faculty have excused the members of the Senior Class from 
attending the Gymnasium as required of the other classes. 


On the morning of the 17th of October at prayers, Prof. Gore made 
the sad announcement of the death of Col. Walter Leak Steele, which 
occured at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, at 9 A. M., Friday October 
16th. Dr. Manning and Dr. Battle then spoke to the students of his many 
virtues and his great love for the University and students. Col. Steele had 
been in failing health for some time, and had gone to Baltimore for treat- 
ment. While not wholly unexpected, the news of his death was a shock 
to all. His devotion to the University, and his desire for her advance- 
ment, together with a warm love and personal regard for the students 
made him very dear to us, and his memory will be cherished for many a 
day by both students and friends of the University. 

Sunday afternoon, October 25th, many students and citizens assembled 
in the Chapel to participate in the Memorial Exercises to the late Walter 
L. Steele, LL. D. 

Dr. Hume opened the services with prayer after which the University 
Choir sang the Hymn : 

"How blest the righteous when he dies." 

This was followed by prayer by Rev. Dr. Carroll, then by a selection 
from the Bible by Prof. H. H. Williams. 

Dr. Winston delivered the Memorial Address, briefly outlining his life 
and character, his great love for the University and her students, and in 
return the great love that every one who knew him bore him. He was in 
the habit of visiting the University annually, and his presence was eagerly 
looked forward to by the boys who greatly enjoyed his wit, humor, sarcasm, 
literary accomplishments and sound common sense. He was a member of 
congress at one time, and reflected honor on himself. He was plain and 
economical, though by no means stingy, and was always very thoughtful 
in remembering his friends with presents whenever he come to the Hill. 
His success in life was due to one main causes — his integrity; he would not 
stoop to do anything he thought wrong for any one. It could be said of 
him : "Behold the perfect man and mark the upright, for the end of that 
man is peace." 

Dr. Winston's description was true to life, and was very greatly 
enjoyed, especially by those whose pleasure it was to know Col. Steele. 

At the conclusion of the address, the choir sang the ode from 
Horace : 

"Integer vitre scelerisque purus." 

After which the benediction was pronounced by Dr. Hume. 

The Upsilon Chapter of the Kappa Alpha Fraternity has been reor- 
ganized here by Mr. A. W. Cheatham, of Ilampden-Sydncy College. The 
charter members are Messrs. Ellis, Cook and Robertson. 


The Inauguration of Dr. George Tayloe Winston as President of the Uni- 
versity took place in Gerrard Hall Wednesday morning, October 14th, at 
eleven o'clock. In the absense of Gov. Holt, who was detained by official 
business, Col. Thos. S. Kenan, President of the Alumni Association, pre- 

The exercises were opened with prayer by Rev. Dr. C. E. Taylor, Presi- 
dent of Wake Forest College, after which the University Choir sang "The 
Old Bell." 

The opening address was made by Pres. D. C. Gilman, of Johns Hop- 
kins University. It was a pleasure to have Dr. Gilman with us, and his 
address was very much enjoyed. Mr. Walter H. Page, editor of the 
F&rum, yet a North Carolina boy of whom we are proud, delivered a very 
scholarly address which was received with enthusiasm. The choir then 
rendered the song written by Mrs. C. P. Spencer entitled "The University 
of North Carolina." 

Dr. Kemp. P. Battle, the retiring President, briefly reviewed the his- 
tory of this institution, and in a few fitting words introduced his successor, 
Dr. Winston. Both Dr. Battle and Dr. Winston were enthusiastically 
greeted with long; and hearty applause. Dr. Winston outlined the policy 
of the new administration, and made a strong plea for higher education in 
the South. His address was delivered in his usual happy and forcible 
manner. Cordial letters were read from Dr. J. L. M. Curry and Prof. 
Henry E. Shepherd, expressing their regret at not being able to attend on 
account of official business. 

The choir sang "The Old North State," after which Dr. Clewell, Prin- 
cipal of Salem Female Academy, pronounced the benediction. 

The stage was fringed with beautiful palm and banana plants, and the 
walls were hung with the portraits of the new President and his illustrious 
predecessors — Dr. Joseph Caldwell, who was President from 1797 to 1835 
with slight intervals of leave; Gov. David Lowry Swain from 1835 to 1868 ■ 
Dr. Kemp. P. Battle from 1875 to 1891. 

At night a reception was given by President Winston to the Faculty, 
Senior Class, resident graduates and invited guests. Those who were so 
fortunate as to be present were treated to a regular old-fashioned "possum" 
supper. The company threw off formality and restaint and the evening 
was greatly enjoyed by all. 

Among the distinguished guests in addition to those already men- 
tioned, we were pleased to see Pres. Crowell of Trinity College, Pres. C. D. 
Mclver, Prof, E. A. Alderman, Prof, W. L. Poteat, Dr. Bennett Smedes 
Eev. I. McK. Pittinger, and Rev. C. N. Hunter. 


Died at the home of her parents in Chapel Hill Monday morning, 
October 26th, Mrs. Gaston Battle nee Miss Tamar Manning. The remains 
were interred in the family burial ground at Pittsboro on the following 

This was one of the saddest deaths we ever knew, and the news car- 
ried sorrow to the hearts of those who knew her. 

To the sorrowing friends and relatives, and especially to the young 
husband on whom the blow falls so heavily, we extend our heartfelt sym- 

At the church of the Good Shepherd at Raleigh Wednesday evening, 
October 21st, Dr. John Haughton London was united in marriage to Miss 
Inder T. Tucker, Rev. Dr. M. M. Marshal, rector of Christ Church, assisted 
by Rev. Mr. Pittinger, officiating. Dr. London is an old University boy 
having recently located in Raleigh to follow his chosen profession — Dental 
Surgery. To the happy couple we extend best wishes for a happy and 
prosperous journey through life. 

Young Lady (to W. F. Student). "How did the foot-ball game with 
University result this afternoon?" 

W. F. Student : "Oh, we beat them." 

Young Lady : "How much?" 

W. F. Student: "Well, — er, the score stood to 4 in favor of the 
University boys." 

The young lady is still puzzled to know how this can be. 

The following members of Dr. Manning's Law Class stood a successful 
examination before the Supreme Court in September and received license 
to practice Law: V. S. Bryant ot Mecklenburg; K. Bryan, of Duplin; J. D. 
Bellamy, Jr. Jr., L. A. Blue, A. S. Williams, of New Hanover; S. C. Bragaw, 
of Beaufort ; R. A. Crowell, of Stanley; M. R. Eure, of Gates; A. L. Gregory 
of Chowan; J. F. Hendren, of Forsyth; W. C. Hamer, of Randolph; Henry 
Johnston, of Edgecombe; W. M. Little, of Richmond; H. W. Lewis, of 
Bertie; A. W. McLean, of Robeson; L. P. McGhee, of Wake; W. S. Robe- 
son, of Orange; C. A. Webb, of Warren. 

The University Exhibit at the Exposition is very tastily arranged and 
shows off to advantage. The space is draped with University colors — white 
and blue. Oil portraits of distinguished members of the Dialectic and 
Philanthropic Societies and photographs of the campus, buildings and 
society halls lent additional interest to the exhibit. Specimens from the 
various labratories and the apparatus used, likewise copies of all the Uni- 
versity Publications are on exhibition. Through the kindness of the 
Southern Express Company, all articles were transported free of charge. 


The Second Annual Convention of the Durham District of the Y. M. 
C. A., was held with the University Association October 23 — 25, 1891. 
Durham was represented by Mr. R. E. White, the Gen. Secretary of that 
association ; the A. and M. Colleges, by Messrs. Bonitz, Allen and Williams ; 
Davidson College by Mr. W. L Lingle, Mr. L. A. Coulter, State Secretary, 
and Mr. W. E. Gales, Assistant State Secretary, were also present. 

The Programme was an attractive one, and all the addresses showed 
much preparation. The meetings were very enjoyable and much good was 
accomplished. The following was the Programme : 


3:30 — Devotional Exercises. 

4:00— Paper, "The Key to Success," Mr. R. E. White, Durham. 


7:30 — Devotional Exercises. 

8:00 — Words of Welcome, Mr. W. E. Rollins of University Association, 
Response by Mr. W. L. Lingle and Mr. W. R. Gales. 

8:30 — Address "The Distinctive Work of the College Association," 
Prof. Karl P. Harrington, University. 


9:30— Bible Reading, Mr. W. R. Gales. 

10:30— Paper, "Some Common Mistakes," Mr. R. E. White. 


3:00 — Devotional Exercises. 

4:15 — Address, "Reaching the Masses," Mr. W. R. Gales. 

4:45 — Question Drawer. 


7:30 — Praise Service. 

8:00— Addres, "The College Deputation Work," Mr. W. L. Lingle. 

8:20 — Discussion, "The College Association and the Study of the 

Prof. H. H. Williams, 
Rev. Dr. Thos. Hume, Jr. 


8:30 A. M. — Consecration Service. 

4:30 P. M — Meeting for men, Mr. W. R. Gales. 

7:30 P. M. — Union Service in Methodist Church. 

W. B. Ricks, who has been engaged in a very lucrative law practice at 
Buena Vista, Va., has obtained license to preach and has entered the 
Theological Department of Vanderbilt University at Nashville, Tenn. — Ex. 


After the members of the last law class had stood their examination 
before the Supreme Court and received their licenses, a very happy inci- 
dent occurred, in which Judge Shepherd, who assisted Dr. Manning as 
instructor in the Summer Law School, figured very promniently. Being 
invited into the Yarboro House parlor, he was presented with a handsome 
gold headed cane by the members of the University class in token of their 
appreciation of his kindly interest in them and his excellence as an in- 
structor. A. L. Gregory, President of the Class, presided, and the presen- 
tation was made by Henry Johnston in a very neat and appropriate speech. 
Judge Shepherd, in accepting the cane, replied in feeling terms at this 
unexpected though gratifying demonstation of their friendly regard. 

A handsome chair was also sent by the class to Dr. Manning at Chapel 
Hill with an appropriate address by Gregory. The presents were selected 
by a committee consisting of Messrs. Bellamy, Eure and Gregory. 

Thursday morning, October 15th, as pecial train carrying two hundred 
students and a number of citizens left Chapel Hill at 8 o'clock, arriving at 
Raleigh at 10:30. This was University Day at the Exposition. The 
students filled several street cars, and every few yards they gave the yell 
with a vengeance. It was not long before Raleigh found out that they 
were there. When they reached the grounds, they formed in line with 
Pres. Winston and other members of the faculty at their head and marched 
to the University Exhibit. Here Pres. Winston was called on and made 
a few remarks, after which the crowd separated to see the various exhibits. 
The day passed off very pleasantly and the best of order prevailed. The 
greater part returned the same afternoon on the regular six o'clock mail. 

The fourth regular semi-annual debate between the Di. and Phi. so- 
cieties took place in the hall of the former Saturday evening, November 
14th, at 7:30. A large crowd was present, and the hall was filled to its 
utmost capacity. Mr. T. R. Foust of the Di. Society presided and J. F. 
Gaither, of the same society acted as Secretary. 

The Query for debate was: Resolved that England is justifiable in 
maintaining Turkish Supremacy. The debaters were 


A. H. Koonce. T. B. Lee. 

S. F. Austin. F. P. Eller. 

The committee to decide the debate consisted of Professors Williams, 
Gore and Alexander. The speeches were all excellent and the arguments 
well presented, but the committee decided in favor of the Negative. The 
Di. Society has won the last two debates, the Phi's having won the first 


Perhaps the best and most scientific games of foot-ball ever witnessed 
in the State was played between Wake Forest and University Tuesday 
afternoon Nov. 10th at Athletic Park Raleigh. Much to our regret the 
game was not finished but after about twenty minutes of the second half 
had been played, the University refused to abide by a decision of the Um- 
pire, Mr. Prince, of Wake Forest, thus forfeiting the game, though the 
score stood six to four in University's favor. The disagreement was caused 
thus: Ferguson, a University half-back, tackled Powell of the Wake 
Forest team who had the ball, and, as the W. F. men and Umpire claim, 
throttled him. Hall, the W. F. guard, struck Ferguson for this, and Fer- 
guson returned the blow. Ferguson denies throttling, though he may 
have tackled high. The W. F. team were trying to force the centre and 
he was compelled to tackle high or not at all. For throttling, the Umpire 
gave Wake Forest 25 yards, but refused to disqualify either Hall or Fergu- 
son, though he saw the blows passed, and though the rules provide that a 
player shall be disqualified if he strikes a player on the opposing team. 
This decision was too much for the University, so Capt. Hoke threw up 
the game to Wake Forest. The ball at that time was on Wake Forest's 
40 yards line, and the score was 6 to 4 in favor of the University. 

In the first half, the ball had been brought out to the 25 yard line 
from a touch back and was placed on the ground. Barnard dropped on 
the ball and ran with it to Wake Forest's 5 yard line where he was downed. 
Mr. Prince, who was then referee, ordered the ball back, ruling that it was 
not in play until kicked. This lost a touch down, or 4 points, for Univer- 
sity. Hoke claimed that Mr. Prince was wrong as the rules say that the 
ball is in play as soon as it touches the ground. There is very little, if 
any, hard feeling between the players, and we hope the game will be 
played over. 

Mr. Prince, of Wake Forest was referee during the first half and um- 
pire during the second. Mr. Shaw, of the University was umpire the first 
half and referee the second half. 

To the News and Observer, we are indebted for the following account of 
the game written for it by Mr. Perrin Busbee, of Raleigh : 

University won toss and chose the ball, Wake Forest taking the west. 
ern end of the field. At 3:05 University started the ball, with Barnard in 
the wedge, gaining 5 yards. 

On the first down University fumbled and Garland dropped on the 

Blanton and Powell were sent around ends for five yards each but the 
ball was lost on off side play. 

University gained 30 yards on rushed by Ferguson and Whedbee, but 
they lost 15 on a fumble and were forced to kick. The ball went into goal 
and was touched back by Powell. Then the first dispute arose, when the 


ball was brought out and Barnard got it and carried it to the five yard line. 
Wake Forest made little gain and the ball went over. The ball changed 
hands frequently, Ferguson making a brilliant run from the 55 yard line 
to Wake Forest's ten yard line and Biggs carrying the ball inside the 5 
yard line. But Wake Forest got the ball on off side play and Powell 
kicked. Then there was a lot of fumbling on both sides and the ball 
changed frequently. Wake Forest had 4 downs on 60 yard line and the 
ball went over. The ball was passed to Hoke who splendidly guarded by 
Barnard, W hedbee, Little, and Biggs, ran through the whole Wake Forest 
team, and went on to glory and a touch down. Barnard held and Hoke 
kicked goal. Score : University, 6 ; Wake Forest, 0. Time, 25 minutes. 

Wake Forest formed a V on the line up, and by heavy rushing by 
Wilson, Powell and Howell, brought the ball to University's five yard line, 
when Wilson was pushed over the line at the right hand corner of the 
field. Blanton punted out to Powell, who made a fair catch, but failed 
goal. Score: University, 6 ; Wake Forest, 4. Time, 42 minutes. 

Nothing was done during the remaining three minutes and time was 
called with University with ball in middle of field. 


In the second half the teams got down to work. There was less fum- 
bling which was so noticeable in the first half and more kicking. Wake 
Forest V. carried the ball 15 yards on the start, but it was soon lost on 4 
downs. U. ushered the ball 20 yards but were forced to kick. Powell 
fumbled and lost ball to Gibbs. University tucked W. F. centre for 4 
downs and ball went over. After Powell had gained 8 yards the ball went 
over and Hoke made pretty run of 20 yards, but Ferguson lost 9 yards, 
and Hoke again kicked. W. F. tucked centre for little gain, Powell kicked 
and Hoke returned it. Wake Forest had the ball on her 40 yard line, on 
the next rush Ferguson and Hall began their little frolic and the game 
ended. The noticeable features were the blocking of the University team 
and the heavy rushing and twisting game of W. F. for U. Hoke, Barnard, 
Biggs, Ferguson and Gibbs deserve special mention in all round work, also 
the tackling of Little. For Wake Forest, Howell, Powell, Sikes, Garland 
and Wilson played the game. This is the score : 

Wake Forest — Average weight 172. Payseur, left end ; Webb, left 
tackier ; Hall, left guard ; Fry, centre ; Sikes, right guard ; Garland, 
right tackier; Cook, right end ; Blanton, quarter-back ; Wilson, left half- 
back ; Howell, captain, right half-back ; Powell, full back. 

University — Average weight 174. Gibbs, left end ; Currie, left tackier; 
Austin, left guard; Hudgins, centre; Houston, right guard; Little, right 
end ; Barnard, quarter-back ; Whedbee, left half-back ; Ferguson, right 
half-back ; Hoke, captain, full-back. 

Touch-downs, Hoke 1, Wilson 1. Goal, Hoke 1. 


Mr. Neill McD. Kobeson several weeks ago was taken sick and it 
became necessary to carry him to his home at Westbrook, Bladen County. 
Here he lingered until Sunday, November 1st, when God saw fit to take 
him from us. Mr. Robeson was a member of the Fresh Class and took a 
good stand in it. He gave promise of a bright future, and was popular 
with those who knew him. The grief-stricken family and friends have 
our sincere condolence. 

Even the young ladies, especially those of Raleigh, insist on calling 
our Assistant Professor of Chemistry a Freshman. 



University of North Carolina, > 

Chapel Hill, N. O, October 17, 1891. j 

Whereas, God in his all wise providence has seen fit to remove 
from our midst, our friend and fellow member, Mr. Neill Robeson, 
be it therefore 

Resolved, That in his death the Society has lost a most promising 
member, and one whose upright conduct and christian character 
during his stay with us, short though it was, gave unusual promise 
of a bright future, and of much usefulness to the Society and 
University. Be it also 

Resolved, That the Philanthropic Society, of which he was a 
member, tenders its deepest sympathy and condolence to his family 
and friends in their bereavement. Be it further 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon a page of the 
minutes dedicated to his memory, and that copies of these be sent 
to the afflicted family, and to the News and Observer and Wilmington 
Messenger for publication. 

J. C Biggs, ] 

S. A. Ashe, >■ Committee. 
M. Hoke, ) 



Old Series Vol. XXII. No. 3. New Series Vol. XI. 



George W. Connor, W. E. Rollins, 

C. F. Harvey. E. Payson Willard. 

Howard E. Rondthaler, "I -r, • -»»- 

W. E. Darden, } Business Managers. 

Published six times a year under the auspices of the Philanthropic and 
Dialetic Societies. Subscription. $1.00. Single copy, 20 cents. 

Entered at the Post Office of Chapel Hill as second class matter. 


Republics with magnificent seats of government are no new 
things in the world's history. The remains of the splendor of the 
ancient capitals of Greece and Rome reminds us, even now, of a 
wealth, a taste, a genius, which combined in the creation of a solid 
magnificence more substantial than the structure of the govern- 
ments which they seemed to embody in their elegance as well as 

The Republics of modern times, Venice, Florence, Geneva, 
seemed also to symbolize the nature of the governments of which 
they were the outgrowth ; capitals also abounding in all the 
evidences of taste, genius and wealth. The ,Capitals remain ; the 
Republics have long since perished, because republics only in name 
and outward form; oligarchies in fact, governing perhaps in the 
name of the people, but without their assent or participation, 
absorbing all power, controlling the labor of the masses, appro- 
priating their wealth, commanding their genius, and constructing 
what are really splendid monuments to oligarchic tyranny. 

The American Capital is the only existing exponent of true 
republican sentiment and spirit. It was founded in the experi- 


mental period of real republican life; in the days when self-govern- 
ment, applicable to a people scattered over a continent, not 
concentrated within the walls of a city or the confines of a province, 
was put upon its trial. Feeble, scattered, almost squalid in the 
first years of its being, the capital, like the government it repre 
sented, was distrusted, viewed with jealousy by the older cities to 
whom it was growing up as a rival, and whose importance it was 
absorbing, and the topic of ridicule to foreigners; for which per- 
haps there was cause in the somewhat pompous nomenclatures 
of the young city. Tom Moore's satirical description, embracing 
the line, "What Goose Creek was, is Tiber now," no longer has 
significance; for Goose Creek and Tiber have long since been 
obsorbed in the great system of city sewerage, only to be recalled 
to original significance by unusual floods following phenomenal 
falls of rain. 

As the country has grown, so has the American Capital grown ; 
as confidence in a republican form of government has strengthened, 
so has confidence in the seat of government strengthened ; as 
the population of the country increased, so has the population of 
the, city increased; as the wealth of the country accumulated and 
its taste became more refined, m has the capital shared in the gen- 
eral culture and prosperity; until at the present day, in the 
grandeur, massiveness and costliness of its public edifices, in the 
taste and elegance of its private buildings, in the magnificent 
aspect of its wide and well laid streets, and in the profusion of its 
trees and shrubbery, it surpasses in fine effects all other cities in 
the United States, and vies with the most splendid capitals of 

The seat of government during the war of the revolution had 
been at Philadelphia. During the period that elapsed between the 
close of that war, and the removal to a fixed and permanent capi- 
tal, the sessions of Congress were held alternately at Princeton, 
Annapolis, Trenton and New York. The necessity for a capital 
isolated from densely crowded centres of population, and safe from 
the irruptions of turbulent mobs, such as have often overawed the 
legislative bodies of European States, leading in frequent instances 
to the overthrow of established rule, was forced upon tho Ameri- 
can people by one of' those very demonstrations of mob violence. 


In June, 1783, when the measures for the disbandment of the rev- 
olutionary army were being prosecuted under circumstances of 
great difficulty and embarrassment, chief among which were pro- 
pel provisions for the officers about to be retired, and the payment 
of arrearages to the private soldiers, a band of newly levied sol- 
diers who had never been in active service, but had been stationed 
in barracks at Lancaster, Pa., so exaggerated their own special 
grievance, that they determined to obtain redress by force, and 
marched in military array to Philadelphia, to overthrow the con- 
gress then in session. On their march, and after reaching the city, 
they were joined by others equally turbulent and disaffected ; and 
the united body of mutineers marched to the State House, took 
possession of the entrances, and sent in a written massage to the 
congress embodying their complaints, and demanding ample re- 
dress to be granted within twenty minutes. Congress was be- 
seiged for three hours, when it dispersed under agreement to meet 
again at a convenient time at Princeton. 

The meeting was quelled; but its influence was most impres- 
sive. The great damage to which the representatives of the peo- 
ple might be exposed by the lawless element of a populous city 
quickened the purpose already conceived, to fix the capitol in an 
isolated spot, upon which population might gather, but one which 
would grow up in full and loyal sympathy with its environments. 

In December, 1784, an ordinance was passed appointing com- 
missioners to purchase land on the Delaware river, near the Dela- 
ware Water Gap, on which to erect the necessary public buildings 
for the uses of the National Government. This locality did not 
satisfy the Southern members of congress because it was too far 
north, was tedious of access, and might fall too much under sec- 
tional influence. They therefore opposed the appropriation of the 
funds needed for the erection of the necessary buildings embraced 
in the proposed measure. After farther delays and contentions, in 
which sites on the Delaware and Potomac rivers were suggested 
and their merits discussed, it was finally agreed that a tract of 
land on both sides of the Potomac, ceded by the States of Virginia 
and Maryland, in both of which the tract lay, should be adapted as 
the permanent seat of government, the territory so ceded to be 
known as the District of Columbia, and the Capital City to be 


called the City of Washington. The district was originally ten 
miles square, but the portion ceded by Virginia was receded to 
that State in 1846. 

The City of Washington dates from 1790. 

The selection of the site must have been very agreeable to 
General Washington. It does not appear that he used his personal 
influence to mould the opinion of Congress, though it might have 
been a grateful as well as a graceful act in that body to bestow 
such signal mark of gratitude and respect. The new city was 
within a short distance of his home at Mount Vernon, and he 
could conveniently superintend the conversion of the fields or the 
forest to the uses of the new metropolis and of the new born 
nation, to grow with its growth, and to be a fair measure of its 
increase in numbers and power. General Washington did indeed 
take deep and intelligent interest in the youthful capital. He had 
an abiding faith in the perpetuity of American institutions and 
their mighty influence upon the development of the Republic with 
giant proportions. As its destiny was a great one so he proposed 
to lay the foundations of its capitol deep and broad, and adapted 
the widest range of expansion. And as the nation over which he 
presided was not only new in existence, but new in practical prin- 
ciple, as he resolved that the plan of the newly founded seat of 
government should be new and wide departure from old world 
models. He was fortunate in obtaining the services of Pierre 
Charles l'Enfant, a Frenchman, educated as an officer of Engineers, 
tendering his services to the cause of American liberty, engaging 
in many battles and receiving severe wounds before the works at 
Savannah. L'Enfant eagerly seized the opportunity presented for 
originality in the planning of a city to be the capital of a possibly 
mighty nation. Nowhere else in the world could such field be 
found. That field was an open one, and he was embarrassed by 
no conditions. 

Time has illustrated most happily the boldness and splendor 
of his conceptions. Yet it must be confessed that appreciation, or 
even comprehensions of his ideas was veiy tardy. For many j-ears 
the large area included in the limits of the city, the broad streets 
radiating from remote central points, cropping each other at sharp 
angles, leaving large open spaces at their intersection to be util- 


ized in the distant future, but for a long time barren and unsightly, 
subjected the design to much of censure, and not a little of ridicule. 
The growth of the city for more than fifty years had not developed 
the utility or the beauty of the plan; and the remoteness of the 
public buildings from each other, removed still farther by alter- 
nately almost impassibly or stiflingly dusty streets, earned for 
Washington City the satirical title of the " City of Magnificent 
Distances." Now, with the smoothly paved streets, with the un- 
seemly angles filled with shrubbery or statuary, with a continuity 
of private and public buildings of pleasing architectural features, 
and with the grandeur of the government departmental buildings 
disposed through the city as local central points around which are 
gathered habitations and business structures to meet other similar 
radiations from similar nuclei to blend in one common and con- 
nected mass, the present beautiful city stands before us a noble 
monument to the daring and original genins of the engineer 

The dominant edifice of the city is the Capitol, finely situated 
on a gentle eminence rising at the east end of Pennsylvania Avenue, 
overlooking the whole city and country for many miles around, 
and dominating a landscape of surpassing beauty. A charming 
feature of the view are the waters of the broad Potomac with its 
somewhat turbulent and rock broken current above the city, and 
its wide placid bay-like expanse, spreading out below as far as the 
eye can reach, and covered with the swift sailing vessels or 
ploughed by the swift going steamer. 

The corner stone of the original Capitol building was laid by 
President "Washington, September 18th, 1793. It was constructed 
of white sandstone, obtained from Acquia Creek. It may here be 
stated that the meetings of congress were held in Philadelphia 
until 1800 under the compromise by which the site on the banks 
of the Potomac was adopted for the National Capitol. The wings of 
the new capitol were completed at the time the British forces under 
Gen. Eoss captured the city, Aug. 24, 1814. That vandal Gen. set fire 
to them and destroyed the interior; and the exterior walls were so 
blackened by the smoke that they have required and received an 
annual coat of white wash. The old building now the centre of the 
great structure grown up around it, is 352 feet, 4 inches long, and 121 


feet, 6 inches wide. The vast increase of the public business, and 
the great addition to the number of members of congress compelled 
the provision of large additional space. In 1850 a bill was passed 
to make the needed additions to the capitol ; and on the 4th of July, 
1851, President Filmore laid the corner stone of the new building. 
The additions consist of magnificent wings attached to the North 
and South ends of the original structure. They are built of white 
marble, obtained at Lee, Massachusettcs. The total length of the 
whole mass is 751 feet, 4 inches, with a width in the widest pai*t, 
of 324 feet. The whole is surmounted by a cast iron dome, which, 
including a largo statue of liberty, by Crawford, which crowns the 
apex, rises 300 feet above the basement floor of the building. 

Whatever may be the criticisms affecting the architectural 
purity of the design of the Capitol, common consent is given without 
question to the grand effect of its noble situation, its imposing 
dimensions, its majestic elevation, the aspiring height of its sym- 
metrical dome, the profusion and richness of its external decora- 
tions, and the purity of color which brings out the edifice in such 
fine relief against the clear blue sky. The grand tout ensemble wins 
the admiration of all who view the capitol as the type of the de- 
velopment and progress of the youngest born of great nations, only 
a century ago struggling in doubt and tribulation in the first 
throes of the daring and detested experiment of self government. 
There the proud and beautiful Capitol stands in its lofty height 
and majestic impressiveness to proclaim to the doubtful and un- 
friendly that the experiment is a grandly successful one. 

J. D. Cameron. 



It was my pleasure, during the summer of 1891, to visit the 
oldest graveyard in Massachusettes, and probably one of the oldest 
in the United States. It was in the township of Lancaster about 
thirty miles west of Boston. 

The township itself once included Worcester, Clinton, Bolton, 
Harvard, Still Biver, Shaker Village, and perhaps others, which 
have split off and become prosperous manufacturing towns of sev- 
eral thousand people, leaving Lancaster as we now know it as 
North, South and Centre. Two stores are boasted of, carrying a 
stock of groceries, dry goods and small novelties of every descrip- 
tion. They combine with themselves too, the village barber shop, 
(opened on demand) and harness manufactory ! 

In truth the village is one of " mgnificent distances !" Its 
streets are interminable, and the "corporate limits" are practically 
unknown ! 

Just across the narrow creek which serves to distinguish be- 
tween the Southern and Central parts of this quaint old place is 
the burying ground of the village. Its entrance was an old- 
fashioned turn-stile, sure proof against any animal save an exper- 
ienced contortionist. 

The grave stones were of various shapes and sizes, and some 
with no regard for either. The inscriptions were rudely cut and 
often difficult to make out. The favorite was this : 

" The Stroke of Death hath laid my head 

Down in this dark & silent Bed; 

The Trump shall sound, I hope to rise, 

And meet my Savior in the Skies." 

Death was apostrophized several times as follows: 
" O Death, Thou'st conquered me, 
I by Thy Dart am slain; 
But CHBIST has conquered thee, 
And I shall rise again." 



" Death with his warrant in his hand, 
Comes rjling on amain; 
We might obey ye summons ye 
And go return to dust again." 

The following epitaph was engraved by one evidently a 
novice in the art of sculpture: 











Again : 

"In Memory of Peter and John, Twin Children of God : Peter 
died July ye 1st, & John Died on ye Day of his Birth." 

And below was added rather suggestively: 

"Death levels all, ye Wicked 

and ye Just ; 
Man's but a Flower and his End 

is dust." 

A bereaved widower, doubtless with an eye to literary merit, 
had this inscription to mark his wife's last resting place: 

" Now sleeps, God rest her soul, 

A Vertuous wife. 
Her Hapeless Husband's only 

Pride in Life. 
Triumphant mount where Happy 

Planets roll. 
And open Paradise to her 

Immortal Soul." 


In an old church-yard at Newberne, N". C, there is said to be 
the following reflective sentiment: 

"Stranger stop, in passing by, 
As you are now, so once was I. 
As I am now, you soon will be, 
Prepare for death and follow me." 

An exasperated, yet pitying old brother, is said to have had 
the epitaph given below, placed upon the headstone of his deceased 
servant : 

"Poor Mary Ann has gone to rest, 

Wit her head on Father Abraham's breast ; 

'Tis very good for Mary Ann, 

But rather tough on Abraham." 

E. Patson Willard. 



[Although it is somewhat out of our line to Senior 
speeches, yet we feel that no apology is necessary for giving the 
following a space in the University Magazine. It is an effort 
of which Mr. Davies may well be proud, and the Mangum Medal 
was most deservedly awarded him.] — Ed. 

While we gather here to-day under the arches of the Memorial 
Hall, a million w 7 aves break on North Carolina's sand-ribbed coast. 
A great lesson we learn while imagination's ear listens to the 
ceaseless murmur and the mind's eye ranges along the white coast 
islands and sand dunes of our shores. 

A truth may be caught from every movement of nature — a 
lesson may be learned from every material circumstance. From 
the wonderful labors of the coral insect in the silent chambers of 
the deep — from the ingenuity of the mother bird in weaving her 
nest — from the ebb and flow of tides — from the fall and decay of 
leaves before an autumn blast we glean lessons which apply to 
man and his various surroundings. A Bar of Sand ! Is there a 
truth hidden here? A great truth does lie buried here, buried 
almost from human sight. Sad memory looks with blinding tears 
upon the sands of Hatteras Bar — cruel sands that have held the 
seaman's prow while angry waves asunder beam and board ! 

'.The heart takes a melancholy lesson with it from this death- 
strewn shore. The geologist comes and learns of the powers of 
wind and wave. While winged commerce comes and reads a chal- 
lenge from death and disaster written by Destinj-'s hand on this 
long white bar of sand. 

Since Sir Walter's ships dropped anchor in Alberrnarle Sound 
and an infant colony was planted on our sunny shores North Car- 
olina has labored under a great difficult}-. We would not enumer- 
ate the many advantages both natural and acquired — the count- 
less resources of climate and soil which the Old North State holds 
and enjoys. We would not speak of the iron highways which 
connect coast and mountain — of the factories which hum by the 
watersides — of the towns which are homes of happiness and pros- 
perity, and of tho noble institutions which honor our State. It is 
a so-called curso upon our domestic development — a seeming 


stumbling block in the path of progress — a bar of sand, of sand in 
the channels of commerce that commands the attention of every 
patriotic mind In the excitement of business life — the rise of 
enterprises — the onward march of booming towns — the struggle of 
humanity after that which glitters and is called gold, we are prone 
to forget that an incubus in the form of a sand bar blocking the 
development of commerce is laid upon our Commonwealth. His- 
tory has proven that it is the sea king who rules the world — that 
sea-going peoples — that commercial nations are most potent in 
position and influence. The Mediterranean was a school room in 
which Europe learned her lessons of greatness. The wild North 
Sea was a training field for the rude Saxon whose offspring today 
float the flag of England on every wave. Fleets and navies have 
been, and ever will be intimately bound up with civilization and 
progress. It is not the diamond dug from rock and soil, but the 
pearl snatched from the stormiest wave which graces most a na- 
tion's diadem. Towards a sod dotted ocean civilization turns for 
support and advancement. 

A deep and spacious harbor is North Carolina's greatest need. 
"Wind and wave have conspired in casting along her shores a series 
of low sandy coast islands which forbid the existance of a natural 
highway for commerce. The iron at Cranberry, the coal at Egypt, 
the cotton soils of Edgecomb and the tobacco fields of Granville 
and Durham are wonderful factors in the State's material prosper- 
ity. The influences exerted by this ancient Mother of men and 
minds together with those going forth from other noble of learning 
are powerful in developing an intelligent people. Many forces 
are at work perfecting the State's mental and material condition — 
but a bar of sand lies across our path. He is a pessimist indeed 
who reads not in every seeming ill the prophesy of every seeming 
good. From this sandy barrier then we snatch a lesson — it is 
this — that through a nation's or an individual's difficulty there 
lies a road to a golden future. The barbarian thundering at the 
gates of the Imperial City and threatening constantly it with fire 
and sword trained the sturdy warrior to carry Rome's Eagles 
throughout the known world. 

The Carthagenean gaily stranded on the Italian coast was a 
model for the Eoman in erectiug through countless difficulties the 


fleet which triumphed in the Punie Wars. Hannibal's bar was 
one of the granite crags and peaks. Napolean's was one of the 
Alpine snows. The son of Mary trod the winepress alone and by 
his struggle snatched a world from darkness. Freedom of speech, 
of thought and of action comes to the Nineteenth Century through 
the flames of Mediaeval persecution and the rocks of a religious 
reformation. The Christian dies for his belief because his master 
hung between two thieves — because his faith fought unarmed 
with the beasts of the bloody amphitheatre. The Anglo Saxon 
loves the Great Charter because the marks of fire on its surface 
tell of centuries of strife between a people and a despot. All that 
we hold dearest bears the impress of blood and tears. Give the 
man or the State a barrier to surmount and you offer the strongest 
inspiration to greatness. 

A bleak climate and sterile soil developed New England as 
sunshine and fertility never could have done. This is an age of 
the triumphs of art. Steam and electricity driving a thousand 
pistons and turning a thousand wheels — ingenuity — genius — en. 
deavor stand ready to scatter the sandy obstruction and throw the 
State open to the world. The impossible — by modern inventions 
has been rendered possible, and there are yet great victories to be 
achieved by the power of genius. 

The locomotive steams along the Alpine pass where armies once 
faltered and fell back. Giant canals connect England's inland 
towns with the ports of overy sea. Hell Gate has been opened 
for the shipping of all nations. A message flashes in a moment 
from Wall street to the brokers of London. The next centuiy 
will witness the flooding of Great Sahara and the arts of man are 
to convert the Dead Sea country into a fertile and prosperous re- 
gion. Progress is bought with a price. That which comes to a 
people through the sweat of the brow, the toil of the hands is in- 
finite in its influence and eternal in its stability. Thero is a "prize 
of high calling" set before the eyes of the State — the greatest task 
of her existence is yet to be performed. It is for coming genera- 
tions to witness tho triumphs of manhood over the ills arising 
from this obstruction to commerce. A sandy barrier is across our 
path to ultimate success — it is a menace to our industries. This 
adversity is the patriot's Kadosh Barnea — it is the riddle of the 


Sphinx for the future Statesman. While capital and enterprise 
turn as if by magnetic influence towai'd the western hills, our 
people forget that the harbor question is one of the greatest im- 
portance. An effort of brain and muscle is needed and it is from 
this effort that the commonwealth is to derive its greatest glory. 
Nature has given to our State an obstacle to surmount and so long 
as this exists our progress is shackeled and retarded. This then is 
the great lesson which we learn — this the jewel which we find 
hidden in the sand — this is the truth which North Carolina must 
recognize that through adversity lies the hidden highway to the 
stars and only honest effort can reach the highest goal. Time's 
hand is to turn the future's sealed page and other men are to read 
of failures or success. History is to drop a tear for defeat and 
award a crown for victory. We doubt not that among her stately 
sisters North Carolina having studied her interests — exercised her 
greatest energies and triumphed over her darkest adversity shall 
stand the laurel-browed possessor of peerless internal resources 
and commercial facilities. 

W. W. Da vies, Jr. 



Egmont is an historical drama. So strongly had Coethe imbued 
himself with the spirit of the times about which he wrote, that 
almost every line of his work embodies an historical allusion. To 
understand the play, therefore, we must study an important 
volume of the world's history. 

We are in the Netherlands — just before the sturdy Dutch rise in 
arms to crush the tyranny of Spain, and we are powerfully 
impressed by the serious excitement of the time. 

From the beginning of their history, the Dutch have loved 
liberty, and have been growing in the spirit of freedom. Patient, 
intelligent labor has brought them the reward of manly courage 
and carried them far away from the passive subjection of the 
people in countries where feudalism is most triumphant. So it is 
natural for them to find an enemy in Spain. What does the Spanish 
lord care for the "Eights" and "Privileges" so dear to the Neth- 
erlands? To him the people are a servile mass, fit only to labor 
and to die; to labor for splendor and luxuries which they do not 
enjoy, to die for the sake of idle quarrels and for conquests that do 
not make them rich. 

Another motive has entered to sever the freedom-loving Nether- 
landers from the hard-hearted, tyrannical Spain. It is religion. 
The Protestant preachers of the Reformation found in the Nether- 
lands a fertile soil for the seeds they came to sow. The spirit of 
emancipation, predominant in the great religious Revolution, was 
already natural to the Dutch ; and it easily became their settled 
conviction. Consequently, at the time when our story begins, we 
hear of religious protests not always tempered with moderation, 
and positive outbreaks against the rites and practices of the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

In times of excitement, the masses move like a swollen stream, 
like a torrent, relentlessly sweeping away whatever opposes its 
course. In this case, the masses or the mobs have pillaged the 
churches, to destroy what they regard as the idolatry of 


There has been civil war, and Phillip II, tired of his sister's 

leniency, is about to force his rebellious provinces to be quiet 

about to crush them into peacefulness. 

All this we feel in Goethe's drama. Not, indeed, that there are 
long and studied explanations, but rather because the spirit and 
the troubles of the time speak in every line. We are reading 
history, but not for history's sake. We are reading of Egmont. 
Goethe has succeeded in'enlistingour sympathy for him so strongly, 
that we feel his influence at every moment. We are forced to love 
him, but not as a great political hero or martyr. We love him for 
himself, for his valor, his justice, his frankness, his genial spirit, 
his kindly, sensitive soul, his loyalty, his heedless devotion 
to principle, his splendid personal charms, and even for his 
recklessness. He is the beau ideal of the dashing young 
nobleman, dear to the common people, for whom he was a 
gallant hero and a true friend; dear to the calm and prudent 
Orange; loved almost passionately by the noble Regent, the 
daughter of Charles V, himself; ardently beloved and adored 
by Ferdinand, the son of his bitterest foe, and idolized by the 
simple Flemish girl, who gave him her life, and refused to live as 
soon as his life was threatened with certain danger. This is the 
picture which Goethe has made. This is the man Egmont, whom 
we see from so many points of view: in the boisterous talk of the 
citizens, in the complaint of the Regent, in the reluctant, half- 
reproachful submission of the Clsorchen's mother, in the turbulent 
discussion of the artisans, in the private conference with the Sec- 
retary, in the solemn farewell of Orange, in the devotion of Ferdi- 
nand, in the fatal interview with Alva, in Clserchen's adoration, 
enthusiasm and mad despair, and finally in the last reflections of 
the doomed man, about to face an ignominious death. 

The episode with Clserchen is not the result of youthful wanton- 
ness. It is designed to illustrate Egmont's tender affection and the 
charm of his character, which was able to win completely a pure 
and artless child of the people. Clserchen's association with Egmont 
was irregular and wrong, but it was not born of lust. It was abso- 
lute, untainted love. 

In the drama there is variety of movement, without haste: The 
stage represents, successively, thirteen places — four of which occur 


more than once, leaving nine independent. No direct allusion is made 
to the time necessary for the development of the action. Asa fact 
about one year elapsed between the events described at the open- 
ing of the play and Egmont's death. Alva arrived at Brussels, 
August 22, 1567. Egmont was arrested September 9, 1567, and 
beheaded June 5, 1568. The play begins some time before Alva's 

Besides the leading figure, we feel a personal interest in Clrer- 
chen, Margaret of Parma, William of Orange, Alva, Ferdinand, 
Brackenburg, Macchiavelli — the other eleven persons, and the 
the guards, attendants and crowd, belong to the necessary setting 
of the play, but we ai'e not personally concerned with them. Next 
to Egmont, we feel most interest in Claerchen, of course. Belonging 
as she does to the people, her relation to Egmont could never end 
in regular marriage. She was, therefore, justly open to the sad 
and bitter reproach of her mother, who saw in her daughter a cast 
away. But the girl had a wholly different conception of herself. 
Mistress of a great man, of superior rank? Never, in the world. 
She was the beloved of Egmont — a princess, therefore, among 
women. His love raised her to a lofty plane, far above her own 
sphere, nay, far above all other women. — Her mistake was one of 
judgment, not of heart. In all other respects, she was a sweet, 
noble creature, worthy of Egmont's love. Her absolute confidence 
and trust, her unflinching resolution in the presence of the timid 
citizens, are noble and beautiful. Having given herself and all to 
her love, like Juliet, she had to die, when she saw the inevitable 
ruin of her hopes. In this perfect love is mirrored one side of 
Egmont's character. 

Throughout the play, the characterization is clear and forcible. 
We are well accpiainted with Orange, Margaret of Parma, Alva, 
the unhappy Brackenburg, and the other important persons. 

Egmont's triumph in the affection of Ferdinand, the son of his 
implacable enemy and murderer, is an invention of Goethe's, which 
is an important stroke in his portrait of Egmont. 

The sketch of Alva and Egmont in the Fourth Act is masterly. 
Alva is sullen, gloomy, inflexible; an exponent of his sovereigns 
might and force, and of his assumed right to irresponsible domin- 
ion. But ho is something olse. He is a deadly enemy, about to 


attack his victim, to attack him secretly and craftily. What a 
contrast between his cold, exacting bearing and Egmont's frank- 
ness and moderation! Bgmont is a loyal subject; but he is also 
the people's friend, and he fears a despot. He believes that his 
countrymen can trust the few chosen, tried advisers of the King 
better than one independent sovereign. He has breathed the free 
air of his native land. Between him and Alva thei*e was no com- 
mon bond of sympathy. 

The style is condensed and compact; sinewy and rich in idomatic 
turns. A part of the play is in prose so rythmic that it might 
easily be turned into iambic verse. Everywhere the language is 
exceedingly flexible. It passes with ease from the popular dialect 
of the humble artisans to the dignified, diplomatic speech of the 
Regent, to the mature style of the Orange, to the naive talk of the 
young girl, to the manly tones of the noble hero, to the shrewd 
extravagance of the demagogue, to Alva : s gloomy haughtiness and 
to Brackenburg's pessimism. 

The closing scene is of rare poetic beauty. To the sleeping 
hero, about to be rudely snatched from all that he cherishes 
on earth, comes a heavenly vision. The goddess of Liberty, 
clothed in the form of Clserchen, hovers over him and consoles 
him. She assures him by her looks and gestures, and by the em- 
blems of victory which she bestows, that his life and death are 
not in vain. Protected by this friend, both human and divine, he 
can afford to die. He awakes with courage to meet his fate. 

In representing Egmont as a young man and unmarried, Goethe 
consciously departed from the truth of history. " For my purpose," 
says he, "it was necessary to transform him (Egmont) into a 
character possessing such qualities as are more becoming a youth 
than a man in years; an unmarried man better than the father of 
a family; an independent man better than one who is restrained by 
the various relations of life. — "Having then, in my mind, invested 
him with youth and freed him from all restraints, I attributed to 
him an exuberant love of life, a boundless confidence in himself, 
the gift of attaching to himself all men, and thus of winning the 
favor of the people, the silent affection of a princess, the avowed 


passion of a child of nature, the sympathy of a profound states- 
man — nay, even the friendship of the son of his greatest adver- 
sary." — (Wahrheit and Dichtung, quoted by Buchheim.) 

To Eckermann he says: "The poet must know what effects he 
wishes to produce, and arrange accordingly the nature of his char- 
acters. If I had represented Egmont, in accordance with history, 
as the father of a dozen children, his thoughtless conduct would 
have appeared quite absurd. I wanted, therefore, another Egmont, 
one whose character would be more in harmony with his actions 
and my own poetical views; and this is, as Clserchen says, my 
Egmont." — (Eckel-mail's Conversations with Goethe, quoted by Buch- 

Criticism must be content with noting this divergence. For we 
cannot refuse the poet the right of forming his own ideals. Indeed, 
as the historian is concerned with recording the affairs of men, the 
poet is pre-eminently a maker, a producer, in his own right. In 
other respects, as we have already said, Goethe gives an accurate 
and even masterly picture of the Netherlands on the eve of their 

The effect of Beethoven's music in the play is happy. It occurs 
three times. In one scene of the last Act, CUerchcn is in her dwel- 
ling with Brackenburg. Despairing of Egmont's life, she has taken 
poison and told her friend good night, leaving a lamp in the win- 
dow for him to blow out when he goes. She retires, as she says, 
to rest. Brackenburg leaves the house, but has forgotten to put 
out the lamp. The stage is left entirely empty. After a moment, 
the lamp flickers and goes out; then the orchestra begins and the 
music gently informs us of Clserchen's death. It occurs again in 
Egmont's prison. The hero has been relieved of his despondency 
and strengthened by Ferdinand's fidelity. With peace in his soul, 
ho sinks upon his couch and quietly falls asleep, while the music 
accompanies the musings of his slumber, as Clrerchcn appears to 
him and crowns him with the wreath of victory. 

Again, when Egmont has been carried away by the soldiers to 
the scaffold, and all is over, the orchestra closes the play and 
relieves us with a grand hymn of victory, foretelling the ultimate 
triumph of freedom in the Netherlands. 

Goethe began to work on this tragedy in 1775, at his father's 


house, in Frankfort-on-the-Maine, and finished it at Rome, in 1787. 
It may, therefore, be regarded as a specimen of his well digested, 
conscientious work. The play was first read and favorably received 
by the literary circle at Weimar. It was performed there first in 
its original cast, and later, in Schiller's "merciless adaptation." 
Now it has an honored place on the German stage. 

The best edition for American Students is that of Buchheim, 
published by MacMillan. 

University of North Carolina. W. D. T. 


— The work of the Fall term closed on Tuesday, December 22, and after 
a very pleasant Christmas, spent by most of the students at home, the 
University begins its second term in a very prosperous condition. The 
number of new students will probably increase our total number to 250- 
This increase is very gratifying to the friends of the institution, and we 
hope, will continue until the number reaches our limit. When this is 
done we will be prepared to do more real University work and to accom- 
plish more for the good of the State. 

The President's Address. — In his address to the students in Girard Hall 
at the opening of the term, President Winston said some very wise things. 
In referring to the depressed financial condition of our people, he said that 
it was in times of great industrial and financial depression that men should 
turn their attention to education and the maintenance of educational 

North Carolina does not seem capable of ever becoming a great indus- 
trial or manufacturing State. Our people cannot become a wealthy people. 
Our aim must be to become not a State of great wealth but a State of men. 
Economy, political and private, must and should be our watchword. We 
must look for happiness not in riches and the material things of this world, 
but in the invincible and unswerving integrity of our manhood. The glory 
and honor of our State must be the simple, plain, but strong and eternal 
virtues of her people. Let it be that when men speak of North Carolina 
they will think of strong manhood, of a religious and educated people who 
are happy, not because they possess wealth but because they are a free, 
independent, great people. To this end let us cultivate sound morality 
and unconquerable integrity, let us foster and maintain true education 
and the means of acquiring this education, and let us strive to be a great 
people because we have a true and enlightened manhood. 

The Library. — At the close of the past term, Mr. Shepard Bryan offered 
his resignation as Librarian to the Library Committee. The resignation 
was accepted. Mr. Bryan had performed his duties very faithfully and 
satisfactorily and the students regretted that he was compelled, for private 
reasons, to resign. Owing to the excellent work of Mr. Bryan, under the 
direction of Dr. Alexander, the Library is now in a very good condition, 


and is being constantly improved. Mr. Frank Batchelor, of Raleigh, has 
been elected to fill the vacancy and, we are sure, will make a very satis- 
factory Librarian. 

There is a growing desire on the part of the students that the Library be 
kept open on Sunday. This is a very reasonable desire and we recommend 
it to the Committees. On this day, especially in the afternoon, a great 
many students find time which they do not find on other days for reading 
the magazines and periodicals which it has been found wise to keep in the 
Library. Of course, the regular Librarian could not be expected to stay in 
the Library on this day, but other arrangements could very easily be made. 

Instruction in Elocution. — For several years Dr. Hume has endeavored 
to secure some competent instructor in elocution to supplement his work 
in the English department, and we are glad to know that he has at last 
succeeded in securing Prof. Hamberlin, of Richmond, Va., to do this work- 
This gentleman is very highly recommended and will be with us this 
Spring as instructor in this very important and valuable art. We trust that 
the Trustees of the University will ere long provide some means of lighten- 
ing the very arduous labors of the Professor of English by providing him 
with a thoroughly competent assistant who will be able to take charge of 
some of the higher classes, thus relieving our very faithful and overworked 
Professor and enabling him to do even better work than he has been 

The suggestion made by Mr. Page, in his address published in our last 
issue, that the University make a thorough study of the Negro Question 
and give the results to the world seems to have attracted the attention of 
thinking men in the State and elsewhere. The President has received a 
letter from Dr. J. L. M. Curry in which this distinguished gentleman 
warmly recommends the plan and promises his support in carrying it out. 
It is said by some there is no Negro Question, that the problem exists only 
in the minds of politicians. However this may be, the fact stands that here 
in the South we have two races, one greatly inferior to the other in man- 
hood, in morals and in industi'v, both living together and destined to live 
side by side for many years to come. Every thinking man naturally is 
concerned as to the outcome of this condition and it would be of interest 
and profit to ascertain what is the present State of things and what is the 
tendency of this condition. 

The University will have a Lecturer on Social Science next year and it 
is hoped that under his direction some steps may be taken toward a 
thorough and complete investigation of the conditions now existing be- 
tween the two races. It will not only prove fine training for the students 
of the Institution, but will, we hope, prove of great importance in the 


Sketches. — The work assigned for students in the advanced History 
classes for this term is the preparation of sketches of Alumni and Trustees 
whose names are on the tablets in Memorial Hall. These sketches will 
probably be published in the State papers and will be very valuable and 
interesting reading. This is a step in the right direction. 



" I'm in a hurry," said a farmer, rushing into a hardware store; "just got 
time to catch the train. Give me a corn popper, quick! " 

" All right, sir ! " replied the clerk. " Do you want a large pop corner? " 

"No, just a medium sized — an ordinary porn copper." 

" How will this cop porner do? " 

"Is that a pon corper?" 

" Yes. But you are getting a little rattled. You mean a corn porper?- 
no-a porn copper ; no-a-" 

" I mean a con porper." 

"Oh, yes, pon copper!" 

" Yes, be quick! Give me a pup cooner, and be quick." 

" All right! Here's your pun cooper." 

— Mirror. 


Her charms and graces a queen would well fit, 
And her presence is lit up with gladness, 

But she is so fat she has always to sit 
It a state of uncrosslimbedness. 

— Mirror. 


— All the Universities of Canada are open to women. — Ex.. 

— The Virginia University Magazine, for November, contains less romance 
than, and is in every way an improvement upon, the previous number. 
"The old M. A. versus the new" will be read with especial interest by 
those who have struggled for this honor. 

Freshman Year : Comedy of Errors. 
Sophomore Year: Much Ado About Nothing. 
Junior Year : As You Like It. 
Senior Year: All's Well That Ends Well. 


— The Niagara Index is one of the most scholarly of our Exchanges. It 
is indeed a relief to turn from the love tales that fill the pages of so many 
College journals to such thoughtful articles as are found in the Index. 
Among these we may mention as worthy of especial note "The Super- 
natural Element in Shakespeare " began in an October and concluded in a 
December number. 

— The November number of the Wake Forest Student contains an article 
entitled " Wake Forest vs. Chapel Hill " which claims to be an account of 
our recent game in Raleigh. Since, however, the article is saturated 
throughout with a spirit of unfairness and is clearly partial in its distribu- 
tion of praise and blame, we refrain from giving to it the title which it 
claims, but rather prefer to regard it as the partial comment of a partisan. 
It is true that the opinions of the ignorant are colored and biased by the 
element of self that enters into the equation, but more should be expected 
from a College student. He, at least, should live upon a higher plain. 

" Does heat expand?" the teacher asked. 
" If so, example cite." 
" The days are long in summer," 
Said the student who is bright. 

Lovers in the hall-way, 
Papa on the stair, 
Bull-dog on the front porch — 
Music in the air. 

— Brunonian. 


— At Iowa Wesleyan University a man must have become a Sophomore 
and maintained an average mark of 8.5 in Ins studies before he is eligible 
to membership to a fraternity ; and in many Western and Southern insti- 
tutions if a fraternity man fails to come up to the requirements of the 

College the Faculty appeal to his fraternity for their action in the matter. 
— Ex. 

— The following from the University Cynic contains much truth and 
should stimulate our Glee Club. It should be remembered, however, in 
justice to Foot-ball, that the game has for its prime object physical culture 
and not the advertisement of the institution it represents. "In our mind, 
if the two are at once beyond the College purse, a thoroughly trained and 
in everyway superior Glee Club is a more effective advertisement for an insti- 
tution than the most formidable Foot-ball team. The former appeals to 
the public, and to the better element in the general public, «s the latter, 
we believe, in the nature of the case cannot. Every selection faultlessly 
rendered upon the stage of some High School town tells more than could 
a touch down on Dartmouth's campus — tells more, we insist, if not in fame 
as current among Colleges, in the actual net results as shown in future 

— The Swarthmore P/tceniz, for December, is upon our table. All of its 
departments are w r ell edited; but we doubt if its department of Exchanges 
has a superior. The following comment well describes the contents of our 
November Exchanges: "As the characteristic features of our Exchanges 
during the first month of the College year were welcomes to new students 
and prophecies of brilliant work to be accomplished the current year, so, 
during the month just ended there has been an all-pervading element 
none the less characteristic of the season. In brief, the whole atmosphere 
of College journalism has been surcharged with foot ball. Editorials, 
descriptions of games, notes, criticisms and comments, volumes of matter, 
have been written upon the great American College game. Even the muse 
has been brought into requisition to sing the praises of the eleven. If we 
accept verbatim the accounts of the various papers, a feat of credulity we 
might find difficult to perform, we should find that every College in the 
land has either just closed the most successful season in its history, or else, 
being defeated in nearly every game, has learned how to win next year. 
That remarkable faculty of never acknowledging complete and lasting 
defeat appears to belong as much to the editors of our Exchanges as to 
the athletes who fight the battles." 


When first I came to College, as quite a little youth, 
I said I'd always study hard, and thought I told the truth ; 
But now since they have taught me the pleasures of foot ball, 
I scarcely have a moment to look at books at all. 

In the morning and the evening, and all times between, I train, 
And the strengthening of my muscles leaves small time to train my brain; 
What's the use of digging out of books all sorts of useless knowledge, 
If I uphold in foot ball games the honor of my College. 

But when from College foot ball into life's foot ball I go, 
Though I'll try to make some touch downs and always tackle low ; 
Yet I'll leave my "Alma Mater" with small Conies and less Greek, 
For I've selected foot-ball for eighteen hours a week. — Ex. 

— The Antiquity of Football. — The antiquity of football goes back to 
the Romans, who according to Basil Kennet in his " Romse Antiques Noti- 
tio," "played with a large kind of ball, dividing into two companies, and 
trying to throw it into one another's goals, which was the conquering 
cast." If this be true, the ancient game bears a strong likeness to the 
more modern game of football. The antiquity of the sport in Great Brit- 
ain certainly goes some centuries farther back than cricket, probably be- 
cause the requisites of the game were much more simple, — only two rude 
posts stuck in the ground, with a bar over the top. The first distinct 
mention of football in England, was made by William Fitzstephen in his 
" History of London," where he speaks of the "young men of the city an- 
nually going into the fields after dinner to play at the well-known game 
of football on the day quoz dicitur carnilevaria." In the "Rotuli Clausarum," 
39 Edward III. (1365), a clear reference is made to it as one of the pastimes 
to be prohibited on account of the decadence of archery ; and the same 
thing occurs in 12 Richard II. (1388). For some reason not quite clear, 
Shrove Tuesday was chosen as the great festival day for footballers, and 
on that day the entire population, young and old, male and female, of the 
villages throughout the length and breadth of England, turned out to play 
the game. Windows were boarded up and houses closed to prevent dam- 
age. This custom prevails at the present time in a few English villages, 
the most notable example being that of Dorking in the south of England. 
So rough did the game become even in those early days, that Jame I. for- 
bade the heir apparent to play it, and in his "Basilikon Doron" describes 
it as "meeter for laming than making able the users thereof." After this, 
football was played at the great public schools only, and the Rugby game 
which bears such a strong resemblance to the Roman harpastum, was 
brought into existence at the old Rugby school, from which it takes its 
name. — Frederick Weir, in November Lippincoit's. 


— W. S. Snipes, Class '90, was on the Campus a day after the opening of 

— A great many new students have arrived, among them several law 

— Jimmie Baird has been seeing ghosts in his room. The consequence 
is that one side of the wall of his room is filled with shot. 

— The Y. M. C. A. has elected Howard Rondthaler President, and T. 
Little Vice-President for this term. The other officers are elected annually. 

— Mott. Morehead left his business at Leaksville long enough to come 
down and witness the University's game with Trinity on the 10th bf No- 

— "Punch" Currie and W. W. Davies have returned to study law. 
"Marsey" Toms has also left the Junior Class to pursue a course under 
Dr. Manning. 

— Lost. — A box containing five pounds of Royster's best candy. Any 
one who can furnish any information as to its whereabouts will please see 
Alex. Andrews. 

— John D. Bellamy, Jr., 3rd, and Alex. Andrews attended the annual 
Convention of the S. A. E. Fraternity, which met at Atlanta, Ceorgia, 
December 28 th. 

— J. V. Lewis, now with the N. C. Geological Survey, and V. S. Bryant, 
who has recently located at Roxboro for the practice of law, paid US a short 
visit just before the close of last term. 

— It is a pity that our bachelor Professors do not take unto themselves a 
wife, especially those who do not know their landlady's best linen table- 
cloths from sheets and use them as such. 

— It is said that John L. Gilmer, of Winston, will not return to College 
next year, but immediately after Commencement will lead to Hymen's 
altar one of Cherry street's fairest daughters. 

— Pete Murphy, who played Centre on the Washington and Lee foot- 
ball team the past season, was on the Hill a few weeks ago. He was then 
laid up with a broken arm, the result of a recent game. 

— The terraces which have been around the Old West and Old East 
Buildings for many years have been removed, as it was thought that they 
kept the first Moor of these buildings in a damp condition. Their removal 
has produced quite a change in the appearance of these buildings. 


— One of our " brilliant young law students " has some strange things to 
tell about Tarboro and its people. The latest is that a man committed 
suicide there not long since ; he blew off the top of his head with a shot- 
gun, and then took laudanum. 

— The Barbee House challenged the Watson House for a game of foot- 
ball, and the challenge was accepted. The playing on both sides was fine, 
several times calling forth the applause of the spectators. The game was 
close, the Barbee House finally winning by a score of 6 to 4. 

— In a game of foot-ball some time ago, the Sophomores beat the Sen- 
iors by a score of 20 to 4. This gave the Freshmen so much more self- 
confidence that they were cheeky enough to challenge the Seniors, but of 
course they were beaten. The score was 20 to 16 in favor of the Seniors. 

— One of our Sophomores takes his "grat " on his first recitation Mon- 
day morning, fearing that the Faculty may withdraw the right to them 
before the end of the week, and then they would be " one on him." A 
good many seem to think it a duty not to fail to take a gratuity once a 

— Mr. Morgan, whose father is an alumnus of the University but now 
living in California, spent several days with us recently. He was at At- 
lanta on a visit, and always having had a desire to see the University, and 
it also being his father's wish that he should, he took advantage of this 

— We congratulate the Trinity foot-ball team on their recently brilliant 
victory over the University of Virginia team. The game was hotly con- 
tested, but the Virginia boys were evidently "not in it," as Trinity won by a 
score of 19 to 0. The playing of Daniels, Trinity's Captain, was especially 

— We regret to announce that Shepard Bryan, our efficient librarian, 
has resigned, not having yet fully recovered from his recent attack of fever. 
He has been elected Professor of Latin in New Berne. The Library 
Committees of the two Societies have made a wise selection and elected 
F. H. Batchelor to the vacancy. 

— Dr. Wm. Battle Phillips, at one time Professor of Agricultural Chem- 
istry, Metallurgy, and Mining at the University, has resigned his position 
as Professor of Chemistry, &c, at the University of Alabama, and accepted 
the Superintendency of a mining and manufacturing company of large 
capital whose principal fields of operation will be at Grand River in the 
State of Kentucky. Dr. Phillips is a live, energetic, and talented man 
and will do well in his new position. His Chemistry class at the Univers- 
ity of Alabama presented him with a handsome gold-headed cane. 


— Will Snow, George Peschau and Will Kenan are looking forward with 
a great deal of pleasure to Easter, for then Durham will he filled with visit- 
ing school girls. Kenan has already received an invitation to dinner 
on that day, and Snow will also receive one if the young lady does not 
forget having met him at the Exposition. 

— Several articles have been missed from the students' rooms of late, and 
for a long time the thief could not be detected. But at last, a negro boy, 
Adolphus Taylor, has been indicted ; and after a preliminary hearing, 
placed in jail to await the March term of Orange Court. The evidence 
against him is very strong. We hope this will put an end to these thefts. 

— Mr. H. B. C. Nitze, Assistant State Geologist, is spending several weeks 
here preparing a report on the work done bj the State Geological Survey 
during the summer. Prof Holmes, who has recovered from a severe 
attack of the "grippe" is also here. The Survey will be at work on the 
formations along the rivers of the eastern portion of the State until the 

— At Immanuel Church, Warrenton, N. C, on the 23rd of December, 
1891, Malvern Hill Palmer, a member of the Class of '88, was united in 
marriage to Miss Jessie Key, daughter of Mr. S. P. Arrington, Rev. Edward 
Benedict officiating. The groom is a rising young lawyer of eastern Caro- 
lina, and well known to many of us. To them we extend our best wishes 
for a happy and prosperous journey through life. 

— A tennis tournament for the championship of College and a gold prize 
was played just before examinations began. Bingham, T. Little, Willard, 
W. Rollins, Whedbee, Rogers, W. Giaham, Hendren, Peschau, Smith, and 
R. Gatling entered. The matches were arranged by lot, three sets out of 
five being necessary for a victory. The contests were, as a rule, close and 
exciting. Willard won. The following is the score, the names of the 
winners being placed first : 


Bingham vs. Graham, W.; 6-3, C-2, 4. 

Peschau v.9. Gatling, R.; 6-3, 6-3- 6-4. 

Little vs. Rogers ; 6-0, 6-0, 6-0. 

Smith vs. Hendren ; 4-0. 6-2, 6-3. 6-3. 

Whedbee vs. Rollins, W. ; 4-0, 7-5, 6-1, 4-6, 6-4 


Willard tw. Bingham ; 6-2, 60, 6-2. 

Little vs. Peschau ; 6-1, 6-1, 6-0. 

Whedbee vs. Smith ; 6-1, 6-2, 6-3. 


Whedbee M. Little; 6-1, 9-7, 6-3. 

Willard vs. Whedbee; 61, 6-3, 6-8, 9-7. 


— The time for base ball draweth nigh. Shall we have a team? 

— C. W. Toms, '89, is now principal of the Durham Graded School. 

— The grip has not passed us. Several of our boys are down with it. 

— How is a particularly boring speaker silenced in the British Parlia- 

— Billy Davies and Robertson are making prepations to go to Chili in 
case war is declared. 

— In all probability a Business Course will be added next session to the 
already numerous advantages offered by the University. 

— The Ovid Musin Musical Company will appear in the Chapel February 
10th. It has a very tine reputation, and will have a good house here. 

— After a close and exciting contest, the Junior Class has elected Craw- 
ford Biggs chief marshall by a vote of 14 to 13. A better selection could 
not have been made. 

— A Department of Elocution is soon to be established here. Prof. L. R. 
Hamberlin, of Richmond, Va., a very talented gentleman and a graduate 
of the Boston School of Oratory will begin instruction on the 19th of 
January. This has long been needed, and we are glad to announce that it 
is now a certainty. 

— The regular annual election of Ball Managers for the commencement 
dances resulted in the election of the following gentlemen: V. H.Boyden, 
chief; A. B. Andrews, Jr., Thomas Ruffin, W. H. Wood, Di. subs; J. A. 
Ashe, Jr., E W. Meyers. L. O'B. B. Jones, Phi. subs. The two parties 
wisely compromised, and the result of the election gives entire satisfaction. 
The success of the dances is assured. 

— The foot-ball team have shown their wisdom by unanimously re-elect- 
ing Mike Hoke Captain for next season. Hoke did his duty well, and 
deserves the honor. He is undoubtedly the best Captain we have ever 
had, and a better selection could not have been made. It was mainly by 
his enthusiastic efforts that the present excellent team was organized and 
trained, and next year we shall see even better results than we have had 
this year. 

— Just before the recent Trinity-University foot-ball game was called, 
Captain T. C. Daniels of the Trinity team, who holds the championship of 
North Carolina for the 100 yards dash, and C. E. Landis, claiming to be 
from Wheeling, West Virginia, ran a race of 100 yards on the foot ball 
field. Daniels was beaten, though doubtless he would have done much 
better had he been in training. Landis is a professional runner and his 
real name is said to be Ross or Rice. 


— The Trinity foot ball team, accompanied by several Trinity students, 
paid the University a visit the afternoon of the 10th of November, for the 
purpose of playing a game of ball with the University team. As the train 
was late and did not arrive until three o'clock, only thirty minute halves 
were played. At 4:15 the teams lined up and then began one of the most 
exciting and brilliant games ever played in the State. Trinity won, the 
score being 6 to 4 in her favor, but she had a narrow escape, for had Hoke 
kicked a goal from Ashe's touchdown, the score would have been 6-6. 

The brilliant play of the game was made by Sam. Ashe in the second 
half. The ball was on University's 5-yard line. Ashe broke through 
Trinity's line, and with Hoke and Ferguson blocking, started toward 
Trinity's goal. Daniels, Durham, (R.,) and Harper, were blocked off in 
quick succession. To Dr. Venable's earnest pleadings, " Come on, Sam, 
come on," Ashe responded nobly. But Durham, (P.,) overtook and downed 
him on Trinity's 10-yard line, though not until Ashe had made a run of 95 
yards and covered himself with glory. 

Trinity's blocking was superior to the University's — it was excellent, but 
her tackling not so good. The ball was kicked very little. The University 
suffered worst from the hard, quick rushes of her opponents, especially 
Davis, the right tackier. Captain Daniels would give the signal "16-98- 
142-27-31-153-64," then "Come on, Jakie," and " Jakie" did not have a 
bit more sense than to come, and come for 5 or 10 yards each time. 

Each player, on both the University and the Trinity team, played his 
position admirably, and the team work on each side was fine. Whitaker 
and Hudgins had their hands full (the former his arms full once) in hold- 
ing each other. Better Captains could not be found than Hoke and 
Daniels, both for their management of the team and for their individual 

The game was especially free from unnecessary roughness or words. The 
umpire and referee gave entire satisfaction. Not a hard word was spoken 
on either side, neither was there the least exhibition of ill-feeling. Every- 
thing passed off as smoothly as could have been wished. 

After the game, the visitors were tendered a banquet by the Athletic 
Association. They left on the 6:40 train the same day with the best wishes 
of the University boys for a victory over the Virginia team. 

The following is the account of the game for which we are again indebted 
to the News and Observer • 

" U. won toss and took the ball, T. having western end of field with sun 
at their back. Then began a series of rushes and downs in which (lie ball 
changed hands frequently. Then Daniels made a good run around end for 
15 yards, and the centre is bucked by guards and tackles, and the ball is 
brought to U. 5 yards line, where Daniels is shoved over. Harper held ball, 
and Durban (R.) kicked goal. 

Score— T., 6; U., 0. 

Time — 1") minutea. 


The ball is brought out, and U. tries the V. again with little success. 
Ferguson was sent through left end for 25 yards, and Hoke tries same 
trick for 10 more. Ashe then carries the ball to TVs 5 yard line, but Fer- 
guson looses ground, and Hoke drop-kicks for goal but fails. Trinity form 
a V. on 25 yard line, and by subsequent rushes of guards and tackles car- 
ries the ball into University's territory, whe-ie it remains until time is 
called. Ten seconds before time, Durham tried goal from field but failed. 

Score — Trinity, 6 ; University, 0. 


Trinity makes 5 yards on V, and in one minute has ball on University's 
5-yard line. University then fought like demons. On the third down 
Daniels is sent around left end, but is beautifully downed by Hoke, and 
the ball goes over. It was a supreme moment for University and they put 
up a weak wall for the rush line. Then, "42-112-64" comes from Capt. 
Hoke and Ashe goes through the line and makes 95 yards before he is 
downed. The play has already been described. Then Hoke and Ferguson 
gained 5 yards and Ashe is sent through centre for touchdown. Hoke 
failed goal and this lost the game to University. 

Score— T., 6 ; U., 4. 

Time — 20 minutes. 

This was the extent of the scoring. During the remaining ten minutes, 
Trinity carried the ball into University's territory where it remained the 
rest of the time. 

The teams lined up as follows : 

Trinity, 6. University, 4. 

McDowell, Left End, Whedbee. 

Plyer, Left Tackier, Currie. 

Cavendish, Left Guard, Austin. 

Whitaker, Centre, Hudgins. 

Avery, Right Guard, Snipes. 

Davis, Right Tackier, Little. 

Durham, (P.) Right End, Biggs. 

Harper, Quarterback, Barnard. 

Daniels, Right Halfback, Ferguson. 

Durham, (S.) Left Halfback, Ashe. 

Durham, (R.) Full Back, Hoke. 


Athletic Field, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Nov. 20, 1891. 
— Attendance, 300 ; Touchdowns, Daniels 1, Ashe 1 ; Goal from Touchdown, 
Durham, (R ); Umpire, Mr. Shaw, of University ; Referee, Mr. Turner, of 


— A handsome oil portrait of our highly esteemed Governor, Thomas M. 
Holt, has been presented to the Dialectic Society. The portrait is the work 
of a University boy, Mr. W. G. Randall, of Raleigh, who is making for 
himself a name in in his chosen profession. 

— The numerous friends of Dr. Kemp Battle Batchelor, now a promising 
young man in his jirofession, will be glad to know of his marriage to Miss 
Ferebee Guion Dewey, one of Raleigh's most popular and most accom- 
plished young ladies. The ceremony was performed by the Rev. M. M. 
Marshall, at Christ Church, Raleigh, N. C., December 30th, 1891, in the 
presence of a large number of friends, after which the happy couple took 
the train for Philadelphia where they will spend a few days with friends 
before leaving for Baltimore, their future home. The Magazine extends 
very best wishes. 

— Prof. Harrington has organized a Latin Seminar ium which is destined 
to do much good. A room has been comfortably furnished on the fourth 
floor of the New East Building, in which over a hundred very valuable 
books on Latin Language and Literature and Philology have been placed. 
All students have the privileges of this room. It is the plan to have the 
Latin classes, especially the higher, make original research and study in 
this department, and to have papers, embodying the results of such study 
and research, read at the regular meetings of the Seminarium. Courses in 
this work will also be assigned to those desiring instruction in post-graduate 
Latin. We hope that Prof. Harrington's plan will receive encouragement 
and support from the students. 

— At Freeport, 111., Tuesday, December 29th, 1891, Mr. Needham Tyndale 
Cobb, of Raleigh, N. C, was married to Miss Eleanor Hope Atkins, daughter 
of General Smith D. Atkins, of that city. The bride is the granddaughter 
of Pres. Swain, her mother, as some of our readers will remember having 
braved, for the time, the open displeasure of many friends throughout the 
State, by marrying the young officer in command of the Federal troops 
stationed at Chapel Hill just after the war. Now their daughter, true to 
her Southern blood and Southern training, returns to North Carolina as 
the wife of an old University boy. Mr. Cobb, who paid his Alma Mater a 
short visit a few weeks ago, was, we believe, the youngest member of the 
class of 1886. He is now Private Secretary to the General Manager of the 
Seaboard Air Line. We extend North Carolina's welcome to the bride, 
our congratulations to the groom, and the University's best wishes to them 



Old Series Vol. XXII. No. 4. New Series Vol. XI. 



George W. Connor, W.E. Rollins, 

C. F. Harvey. E. Payson Willard. 

Howard E. Rondthaler, \ Business M 

W. E. Darden, j ■ t5usiness Mans 


Published six times a year under the auspices of the Philanthropic and 
Dialetic Societies. Subscription. $1.00. Single copy, 20 cents. 

Entered at the Post Office of Chapel Hill as second class matter. 


"La grande, cuisine" the maiden said 

In tones sweet as treacle, 
"Bt la grande salle-a-manger, toutc 

Du treizieme siecle." 

We looked about from stone paved floor, 

To rich, old panelled ceiling, 
And to our thoughts the days of yore, 

The storied days, came stealing. 

Once more in courtly revel meet 

The stately knights and ladies, 
And merry cheer with laugh and song 

About the table eddies. 

Into yon cavern's spacious jaws, 

The serfs great logs art leaping, 
And upward from their burning bed 

The ruddy flames are leaping. 

So real it grows the very smoke 

Seems still the air to leaven, — 
I step within, and raise my eyes 

Toward the bright blue heaven. 

Ye shades of all romantic thoughts 

To your foundation shaken ! 
That same wide chimney piece is filled 

With nineteenth century bacon ! 

Adelaide L. Fries. 


Preached in St. John's Church, Fayetteville, the Sunday next before 

Advent, November 24th, 1889, at the Centennial of the 

Fayetteville Convention of 1789; 

By Jos. Blount Cheshire, Jr., 

Pastor of St. Peter's Church, Charlotte. 

"Except the Lord build the house, they labour in vain that 
build it: except the Lord keep the city, the watchman waketh 
but in vain." — Psalm cxxvii:l. 

We are accustomed to think of religious truth as having relation 
solely to individuals, and not to the larger life of the community. 
But Christianity has its religion to States and Nations, as well as 
to men and women. St. Paul told the men of Athens that God, 
who made of one blood all the nations of men who dwell on the 
face of the whole earth, did also appoint to each its time and the 
bounds of its habitation. Without curiosity inquiring into the 
full significance of these words, they arc certainly an assertion that 
the divine purpose and providence are concerned no less with the 
great affairs of this world than with the small. God, who hath so 
constituted man that social, civd and national institutions are 
essential to his proper welfare and development, cannot be sup- 
posed to be absent from those great affairs between peoples and 
notions, whereby the history and character of generations and of 
continents are determined. 

It is well, therefore, the Church should note the great anniver- 
saries of our national histoiy, and should with the State rejoice in 
all the memories of past achievements. The religion of our Lord 
Jesus Christ does not take us out of this world, or relieve us of its 
responsibilities: rather, it raises political and civil duties and rela- 
tionships to a higher plane. We connot fail to recognize the great 
place which our country holds in present power and in future possi- 
bilities for guiding the development of the world's progress: we 
cannot, therefore, refuse to recall with thankfulness those provi- 
dential orderings by which we have been brought hitherto. If we 
can realize, my dear brethren, that what wo are now, is not only 
the outcome of human straggles, but represents also the workings 

A SERMON. 163 

of the divine purpose; that the independence of the Thirteen Col- 
onies, the adoption of the Federal Constitution, the growth, pros- 
perity, perils, trials, deliverances, triumphs of these United States, 
are factors in the great problems of God's world and work; — if we 
can realize this, we shall prove the services of this day, carry back 
with us into the life of our country and of our State a purer patri- 
otism and a, more earnest purpose, and we shall thereby be the 
better fitted to bear our part in the great work, whatever it may 
be, which is set before us as a people. 

This day we remember before God that great event, the .Ratifi- 
cation and Adoption by North Carolina of the Constitution of the 
United States of America. Do you ask, What has a sermon to do 
with such a topic ? I reply, that though questions of present party 
differences are properly excluded from the pulpit, yet the people 
of God must recognize His hand in the particular orderings of His 
providence, and not merely in a vague and general way; and when 
time has taken great political events out of the region of party 
contention, and enables us to come to some agreement as to their 
ti'ue character and results, it cannot but be useful to look back 
over our past, and to discover and to thank God for the blessings 
and deliverances which the past discloses in our civil and political 
annals. I shall therefore ask your attention to the great events 
which have this week been in all men's min'ds and mouths. Those 
events of the years 1788 and 1789 made possible the America of 
1889. All our subsequent history and achievements are hinged 

I believe that our people generally have a very inadequate esti- 
mate of the importance of the second act in the drama our country's 
independent existence, — that act which closed with the adoption 
of the Federal Constitution, and the putting into operation of the 
new machinery of government. In order that we may this day 
give thanks with the understanding as well as with the voice, bear 
with me while I summarize very briefly the condition of the coun- 
try at large during the period from the treaty of peace in 1783 to 
the date which we commemorate, 1789. 

In the affairs of modern government money is ordinarily the 
measure of prosperity ; not the absolute amount of money, but the 
amount of money with reference to the necessities of government. 


A country may be poor, and yet free, independent, virtuous, con- 
tented, administering its affairs prudently, and making its scanty 
income answer its necessary expenses. But no country can be 
permanently independent, virtuous, contented, or free, which can- 
not raise a revenue, one year with another, equal to its necessary 
annual expenditures. Not to go into details, it is sufficient to say, 
that at the recognition of our independence by Great Britain in 
1783 the Congress of the United States was left with a debt of 
some forty-five million dollars, and annual liabilities running up 
into the millions (leaving out all obligations on account of the 
principal of the debt), and with no power whatever to raise a single 
dollar of revenue, except by requisitions upon the several States. 
What these requisitions availed may be judged by the fact that in 
1785, two years after the treaty of peace, hardly a third had been 
paid upon the requisition made in 1781 during the very crisis of 
the Revolution, though it was largely payable in the depreciated 
currency of the period. In this connection General Davie stated 
in the Convention of 1788 at Hillsboro' that " when the last great 
stroke was made, which humbled the pride of Great Britain, and 
put us in possession of peace and independence, so low were the 
finances and credit of the United States that the army could not 
move from Philadelphia until the Minister of his most Christian 
Majesty was prevailed upon to draw bills to defray the expense of 
the expedition; these were not obtained upon the credit or interest 
of Congress, but by the personal influence of the Commander in 
Chief." When in 1786 a mint was established by Congress, they 
had nothing to coin but a few tons of copper cents. Such was the 
condition of the public finances that Governor Johnson declared in 
the same Hillsboro' Convention : " The United States are bank- 
rupts. They are considered such in every part of the world. They 
borrow money and promise to pay — they have it not in their 
power, and they are obliged to ask of the people to whom they 
owe, to lend them money to pay the very interest. This is dis- 
graceful and humiliating." Tho financial condition of the several 
States, and the great mass of the people, was almost as bad. 

But besides being bankrupt the government was utterly feeble 
and helpless. Called together with no definite powers or distinct 
purpose, the Continental Congress had taken up the common 

A SEKMOti. 165 

cause of the Colonies, and backed by the enthusiasm of a united 
people, it had successfully carried through a gigantic undertaking, 
and had thereby won for itself a name, perhaps, second to no legis- 
lative or administrative assembly known to history. It had organ- 
ized a new government, raised armies, negotiated treaties, fought 
out successf'ullj'-a long and exhausting war with the greatest empire 
of the world, and given a new luminary — or rather a galaxy of new 
luminaries — to the political heavens. But it had done all this 
because it was the real representative of the life and aspirations of 
the people of America, and because the common peril produced on 
all hands a subordination of all feelings and interests to the com- 
mon cause. From the nature of the case such a government could 
not survive a return to the ordinary coui'se of affairs. With the 
relaxation of the intense strain of the war, the power and influence 
of Congress disappeared. Helpless at home, despised abroad, it 
dragged on a feeble and useless existence. Five years after the 
treaty of peace England still held the forts on our Western frontier, 
which she had agreed to surrender, refusing to give them up 
because the several States neglected to pass the stipulated laws in 
favor of debits due to the British subjects; and Congress was 
equally powerless to secure the performance of these treaty obli- 
gations by our people and by Great Britain. Mr. Pitt refused to 
negotiate a treaty of commerce with so deficient a government, 
and did not condescend so much as to send a representative to our 

And worse than all! the people uf the United States were divided 
among themselves. Concessions absolute^ essential to the gen- 
eral welfare and universally seen and acknowledged to be thus 
essential, could not be obtained from the State governments on 
account of local jealousies and selfishness. In some States civil 
commotions threatened general disorder and strife. All over our 
country personal controversies, more or less embittered by polit- 
ical and professional prejudices, were carried on with the greatest 
rancour and violence. Some of the wisest and best men of America 
began seriously to contemplate the possibility of having to go 
back to some form of monarchical centralization in order to restrain 
and to counteract the destructive development of the democratic 


Yet, "on the other hand, there were elements of wonderful power 
and promise wrapped up in all this temporary disorder and help- 
lessness. Our vast territory offered every national advantage. 
Our geographical position cut us off from the perplexities of the 
Old World alliances. We possessed the glorious heritage of Anglo- 
Saxon blood and memories, and Providence had made us the pio- 
neers of that race, whieh had already given abundant evidence of 
its imperial endowments, and which had begun to feel and to see 
dimly before it, the great part which God intends it to play in the 
enlightenment and Christianization of the world. 

And incorporated in the very blood of our people were the great 
principles of the Common Law, still dominant in in the American 
Commonwealths in spite of the fermentation produced by the 
admixture of the yeast of French democracy. We need not fear, 
my fellow countrymen, to paint in faithful colors the weakness, the 
follies, the errors of that troublous period from 1783 to 1789. The 
dismembered limbs of the British Colonial system were left like 
the scattered bones in Ezekiel's valley of slaughter. But the spirit 
of life was breathing upon them, and with the irresistible impulse 
and power of life they struggled through that dark period, until 
bone came to bone, and limb to limb, and the body of law and 
order and civil government stood forth a young giant among the 

It has always seemed to me a most interesting and significant 
fact that though Jefferson made the opening sentences of the 
Declaration of Indepcnce speak the language of French theorists, 
yet the sturdy good sense of the common law speaks out nnmis- 
takebly through the whole body of that great instrument. And 
though Jefferson and his sympathizers distrusted and opposed the 
common instinct of the people, leading them to seek a more perfect 
union, yet the genius of the Anglo-Sagon asserted itself, and out of 
the familiar principles of English law, disregarding theories and 
speculative refinements, the common sense of the country, subli- 
mated into genius by the stress of a great emergency, built up a 
new, yet old, system of government, and set before the world as 
the evidence and the measure of American greatness, The Federal 

Tt is impossible at this time to go into the history of the forma- 

A SERMON. 167 

tion and adoption of the Constitution. I have only designed to 
indicate the condition of weakness, division, and incipient anarchy, 
which characterized the preceding period, and the wonderful way 
in which the vitality of our people and of our ancient institutions 
asserted themselves in adjusting our civil and political machinery 
to the changed condition of affairs. But if any one will carefully 
examine and consider the history of this transition period; if he 
will note the innumerable and seemingly inseparable obstacles 
which stood in the way of a more effective organization; if he will 
observe how the New Englanders commerce, and the South Caro- 
linian's interest in continuing the slave trade, the ambition of the 
large States and the jealousy of the small, and a thousand other 
interests and designs, seemed so opposite as to be totally irrecon- 
cilable ; and, above all, how the ignorance of the great mass of the 
people left them at the mercy of interested politicians (and especi- 
ally was this the case in North Carolina); and then if he will 
observe how, in spite of all, and against odds which seemed the 
most desperate, the desire for union and settled authority and an 
efficient central administration, conquered — overbore the eloquence 
of Patrick Henry in Virginia, and the logic of Luther Martin in 
Maryland, and the popular authority of Clinton in New York. I 
think it will not be hard to realize that there was present in this 
crisis of our country's history a providential influence which pre- 
served us from all threatened dangers, which inspired our states- 
men with moderation and made our people feel which way lay 
their true interests, and along what lines their true destiny must 
be worked out. Without this power upon the minds and hearts of 
the people, all the statesmanship of Wilson, of Franklin, of Ran- 
dolph, of Ellsworth, of Hamilton, of Davie, would have been help- 
less to arrest this country's downward progress to the mire which 
seemed to yawn before it: "Except the Lord build the house, they 
labour in vain that build it; except the Lord keep the city, the 
watchman waketh but in vain." 

The strength of the common sentiment for union was most strik- 
ingly i.lustrated by its failures. Where the narrow prejudices of 
section or of party seemed to prevail their success was only tem- 
porary and illusory. The cause of union and of American greatness 
triumphed even where it seemed overborne. Our own State and 

168 A SERMON. 

the great event which we to-day commemorate afford a notable 
example of this. 

When the Convention of 1788 met in old *St. Matthew's Church, 
Hillsboro, there was a solid majority of one hundred delegates 
opposed to the adoption of the Federal Constitution. The ablest 
and best informed members of the Convention were all but unani- 
mously in favor of its adoption, but they could make no impression 
upon their opponents, who sat mostly silent, and apparently 
impervious to reason, but unshaken in their determination to 
defeat the ratification. The ablest, the wisest, the most learned, 
the most eloquent men of the State — James Iredell, William R. 
Davie, Samuel Johnston, Archibald McLaine, Richard Dobbs 
Spaight — expounded, argued, illustrated; and at the end of a fort- 
night, by a vote of one hundred and eighty-four to eighty -four, the 
Convention refused to adopt the Constitution. And yet the word 
spoken seemingly in vain, had along with the march of events, 
done the work. In a free country the cause which cannot main- 
tain itself by reason cannot retain the allegiance of the people. 
When the next Convention met in this town to consider the same 
Constitution in November, 1789, the opposition, though apparently 
strong in numbers before the meeting, had in fact melted away, 
and the vote for adoption stood one hundred and ninety-three to 
seventy-five; while the real strength of the opposition was so much 
less than even these members indicated, that it has left no mark 
upon the page of history by which its reasons or purpose can now 

*Mr. McRee, in his admirable work, "The Life and Letters of James 
Iredell," says that the Convention of 17SS met "in the Presbyterian 
Church." This is an error into which Mr. McRee was led by the fact that 
the edifice now occupied by the Presbyterians, of Hillsboro, stands upon 
the site of old St. Matthew's, in which the Convention held its sessions. 
There was no other Church in Hillsboro until some years after the begining 
of the present century. After the old St. Matthew's, a wooden structure, 
had fallen to decay, the present building was erected on the same site by a 
public subscription, ami was used as a free church until the Presbyterians, 
being the first to have a settled minister and a permanent organization, 
acquired by use the exclusiue possession, which they still retain. These 
facts were well known to the older inhabitants of the town. I had them 
from the late John W. Norwood, Esq. The property was secured to the 
Episcopal Church by an ordinance of 1776. 

A SERMON. 169 

be known. It had nothing to say for itself which after years have 
cared to remember : it only voted, and died. And as marking the 
popular estimate in which the leaders of the minority at Hillsboro 
were held, the General Assembly in session here at the same time 
chose Samuel Johnston to be the first Senator from North Carolina, 
and named a county after James Iredell. 

We thank God to-day for this union with our sister States under 
tbe Federal Constitution, which was consummated in the good 
town of Fayetteville one hundred years ago. I do not say that all 
the evils which I have mentioned disappeared at once after 1789. 
As a matter of fact, some of them for a time may have seemed 
aggravated by the change. But in the Federal Union lay the 
remedy which in the end worked the cure. 

I should like to go on, did time permit, and to point out in how 
wonderful a mariner our political institutions have borne every 
strain to which they have been subjected. Most of us remember 
the terrible struggle. of 1861-65, and the bitterness of disappoint- 
ment in which it ended. And yet I believe we can all see how, in 
spite of our sins and our many and grievous faults on both sides, 
the Constitution of 1789 still survives, and .exhibits to the world 
the brightest example of liberty, justice, equality and stability 
which man has ever been able to devise. God has overruled the 
wrath of man to His praise: He has preserved for us and for our 
children that which doubtless, if we had had our own way, our 
rash hands would have destroyed. 

We cannot, on this occasion, forget the great part which church 
men had in the splendid achievements of patriotism and of states- 
manship which we have been commemorating. It has been common 
for ignorance and prejudice to accuse the Church of disloyalty to 
the American cause and American institutions. I thank God that 
the Church has never been so narrow that it could hold men of 
only one political party. And I thank God also that the time has 
come when we can do justice to the many brave and virtuous men 
in the American Colonies who drew the sword for King George. I 
had rather reckon among my ancestry one of these brave High- 
landers or Eegulators who followed McDowell and fell with Mc- 
Leod at Moore's Creek Bridge, than any vaporing patriot who was 
a fair-weather Whig, and yet could take the oath of allegiance to 

170 A SERMON. 

save his property from Tarleton's raiders. But while doing justice 
and rendering honor to all brave men who loved the right, however 
differently they saw it, certainly we can claim for the Churchmen 
of our early history the first place when we meet to honor those 
who won American freedom and established American institutions. 
The President of the t Constitutional Convention of 1789 was George 
Washington, a Churchman ; a majority of the leading men of that 
Convention were Churchmen. The three men who exerted the 
greatest influence in securing the adoption of the Constitution 
throughout the United States were Hamilton, Madison and Jay, 
three Churchmen. Of the three members who signed that great 
instrument on the part of North Carolina, Spaight, Williamson 
and Blount, Spaight and Blount were Churchmen, Williamson a 
Presbyterian. The five men in the Hillsboro Convention who failed 
to convince the hostile majority, but who converted the State, were 
Iredell, Davie, Johnston, McLaine and Spaight. Davie was a 
Presbyterian ; Iredell, Johnston, McLaine and Spaight. Churchmen- 
To these should be added another Churchman, Hooper, who> 
though defeated for the Convention, exacting a very great influ- 
ence in bringing about the final result in favor of the Constitution. 
The President of both our Conventions was Samuel Johnston, and 
the Vice-President of that of 1789 was Charles Johnson, a Church- 
man. And both the Senators elected from North Carolina in 1789 
were Churchmen, Samuel Johnston and Benjamin Hawkins. 

Since 1789 God has dealt graciously with our land. Our present 
prosperity, power, wealth, and increasing development are the 
wonder of the world. But nowhere has the hand of a beneficent 
Providence been more visible than during that period and in those 
experiences whose happy issue we have this week been celebrating: 
"God hath done great things for us already, whereof we rejoice." 

As we look back one hundred years, and see America laying the 
foundation of its greatness in its heritage of Anglo-Saxon life and 
principles; and as we thus realise our relation to fhe preceding 
history of the world, and our share in all the foregone trials and 
triumphs of our English-speaking race, is it a mere fancy which 
sees in each recurrence of the closing years <»! th^ ninth decade <>f 
the centuries since the discovery of America, a time of peril, and of 
Divine intervention on our behalf? Tn 1788 and 178!) there was. 

A SERMON. 171 

as we have seen, the travail and labor whereby the new system of 
government, confederated yet united and vigorous, was given to 
the world. One hundred years before that, in 1688 and 1689, 
America no less than England, under the influence of a pusilani- 
mous race of Kings, was threatened with absorption into the 
imposing fabric of French Empire. If ever the complications which 
beset any course of human policy seemed past man's sagacity and 
management to unravel, and in need of the special favor of heaven, 
such were the difficulties which confronted William of Orange, 
when he undertook to maintain the cause of Constitutional liberty 
and Protestant independence in England. Yet by the good hand 
of his God upon him he overthrew the portentous structure of 
French ambition, and delivered the Reformed Church of England 
from a fatal connection with the Stuarts, and from the more dan- 
gerous domination of vicious ecclesiastical and political principles. 
And then look back another century, to the years 1588 and 1589! 
Where was our country and our race at that time? A llittle band 
of men, women and children, the first English settlers in America, 
were perishing upon the sands of Roanoke Island or of Croatan. 
The England of that day, which had not yet sent out your fathers 
and mine to found this new Empire, was in the midst of a death 
struggle with the great world-power, Spain. She was a little 
country, barely larger than our own State of North Carolina, with- 
out a single colony, with no ally save the struggling and all but 
destroyed Dutch, with no army save train-bands, and with a 
navy which seemed contemptible beside the towering ships of 
Spain. Philip II, "That sad, menacing tyrant, who mischiefs the 
world with his gold of Ophir," saw in our fathers a spirit forever 
hostile to the tyranny of Pope and of Emperor, and already aspir- 
ing to dispute with him the* possession of the western world; and 
he put forth his giant hand to crush out liberty and life. 

To my mind, friends and countrymen, there is no more heroic 
scene in the'history of nations, than that presented by the English 
fleet as it lay in the harbor of Plymouth expecting the appearance 
of the "Invincible Armada.'' And it belongs to us just as really, 
in its essential connection with our history, as the Declaration of 
Independence, the surrender at Yorktown, or the Federal Consti- 
tution. I love to think that some ancestor of yours and of mine, 

172 A SERMON. 

of some of us who are here to-day, had a place in that gallant band, 
and fought there for the liberties and the prosperity of us, his 
children. Not only was the fate of Europe involved in the 
expected conflict, but the whole future of the Anglo-Saxon race in 
every continent and for coming ages. The destinies of America, of 
India, of Australia, of the world, hung trembling in the balance, as 
the great galleases of Medina Sidonia bore down upon the Cornish 

And then and there God fought for us, for His Church, for that 
race which he destined to such wonderful achievements. Raleigh 
and Drake and Hawkins and Howard, and the hardy fishermen, 
and the gallant knights, squires, and yeomen, who pushed out from 
every bog and creek along the Southern coast of England, and 
hung like swarms of hornets around the great floating fortresses, 
above which blazed the gorgeous banner of Spain, all fought for 
America, and helped to make this day possible to us. And God 
gave them the success which such courage and faithfulness merited ; 
well did Charles Wesley interpret the issue of that heroic 
struggle : 

"Vainly invincible, 

Their fleets the seas did hide^ 
And doomed our sires to death and hell. 

And Israel's God defied. 

But with His wind He blew, 

But with His waves he rose, 
And dashed, and scattered, and o'erthrew, 

And swallowed up His foes." 
In 1589 England saw herself and her people — our people — deliv- 
ered from the towering pride of Spain, whose stranded navies, in 
the language of Milton, larded all her Northern seas. In 1681) the 
rising Colonies of America rejoiced with the mother-country in 
their release from Popery and the Stuarts, and in the same pros- 
pect of the defeat of Louis XlV's imperial schemes. In 1789 we 
showed to the world that our ancient principles and instituiions 
of civil government retained snch essential vitality that the}' could 
be adjusted to the necessities of every situation and of every 
emergency in the great march of peaceful conquest and develop- 
ment upon which we had entered. The wisdom and moderation 

A SERMON. 173 

of our fathers preserved and transmitted to future generations 
those principles of personal liberty and of local self government 
which they had so bravely defended, while at the same time they 
provided for an efficient and steady control of general interests and 
a strong front against external enemies. In all these difficulties 
God sustained our fathers and so directed them in all their doings 
with His gracious favor that their works do yet show forth His 
praise. What has he done for us in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine? 

At this time, my brethren, we may be passing through a crisis 
as important as any of the past. The trial of prosperity is more 
searching than that of poverty and danger. The full significance 
and importance of the day's duties are seldom apparent to the 
actors therein. It cannot but be a great peril — the possession of 
such power and wealth as this country now enjoys! In order that 
these things may be for our true welfare there must be on our part 
an appreciation of the greatness of God's blessings, and of its 
corresponding responsibilities and duties. Certainly the history of 
the world shows no parallel to the experience of our great Federal 
Republic during the first eentury of its existence. This experience 
of temporal prosperity and success imperatively demands the 
development of a type of citizenship equally above that of past 
ages and of other countries. If our moral horizons do not expand, 
and our ideal of duty rise to higher perfection, our national char- 
acter will only be the more surely debased by our prosperity, and 
an national decay be more rapid and inevitable. It is folly for us 
to expect the cessation of party divisions and party strifes. They 
are not only unavoidable, but within proper limitations, they are 
healthy and elevating. But into this necessary strife and conten- 
tion we must carry the consciousness of principles of eternal right 
and justice more important than temporary success or material 
wealth: and our American civil and political life must be purified 
and elevated, that we may be able to exert the great and renewing 
influence upon the nations of the earth, which God has put it in 
our power to exercise. The privileges of citizenship must be 
claimed and exercised by Christian men, and its responsibilities 
and burdens faithfully borne, that the great cause of virtue 
honesty and purity, social and political, may prosper, that vice 

174 A SERMON. 

may be discouraged and repressed, that all men may be protected 
in life, liberty, property and character, that the public administra- 
tion of government may represent and express the highest attain- 
ments of our people in intelligence and in social and moral culture. 
God has a purpose beyond our selfish advancement in the blessings 
which He has so abundantly poured out upon us. This is the 
lesson which we should learn from such anniversaries as this. The 
deliverances and triumphs of the past testify of the good provi- 
dence of God over our fathers; and thus implies the same eye upon 
us for good if we will walk in His ways. We belong to God not 
only in our secret souls, but in our outward lives, and in all their 
manifold activities and relationships ; and for the discharge of our 
duties of citizenship, and for our use of its privileges He will call 
us to account. May He be with us, as He was with our fathers ! 
May he build us up upon His sure foundation of truth and justice! 
May His righteousness go before us, and the glory of the Lord be 
our reward ! 



(University Shakespeare Club, January, 1892.) 

The fools in Shakespeare deserve special mention in that they 
are a distinct type of human character, and as such are well worth 
studying. In fact, we have the declaration from the Great Charac- 
terizer himself that "he did know a many fools." Only one of 
them time permits us to treat of. 

The office of Court-fool was peculiar to the middle ages, but was 
in vogue even in the time of Shakespeare. Descended from the 
vice of the early Morality Plays, whose business it was "to tickle 
the devil," for the amusement of the audience, the fool is, no 
doubt, also the ancestor of our modern circus clown. 

Who knows but that Shakespeare had some of the great court- 
fools of his day in mind, when he wrote so interestingly, so wittily 
and yet sometimes so touchingly of these dispensers of wisdom 
clothed in the garb of folly ? 

Which one of these well-known clowns furnished the material 
out of which our fool was created it is of course impossible for 
any one but the Great Dramatist himself to say. Yet there can be 
no doubt that the peculiar characteristics of some one of these, or 
perhaps several of them, were incorporated into the fool of Shakes- 
peare, coming out from his brain a new, but not less distinct type 
of his kind. The office of artificial fool was not as some have 
thought within the province of idiots, but was peculiar, as some 
one has rightly said, in that "it was something that none but he 
that hath wit can perform, and none but he that wants it will 
perform." Being privileged characters, often under the cover of 
their humorous sallies and seeming idiocy there lurked a truth 
which was unmistakable in its meaning and application, and which 
came home closer than an open reproof would have done to 
persons whom to reprove openly meant certain death. . 

Will Somers, the famous court-fool of King Henry VIII, is thus 
said to have administered a stinging rebuke to the haughty and 
avaricious Cardinal Wolsey. The King and the Cardinal were at 


dinner one day, when the fool approached and demanded ten 
pounds to pay some of the Cardinal's creditors. When the Cardi- 
nal strongly denied having any, Somers said, "Lend me ten pounds, 
if I pay it not where thou owest it, I'll give thee twenty for it." 
To this the Cardinal agreed. So he lent Will the ten pounds. 
Will went to the gate, distributed the money to some poor beggars 
standing there, and brought back the bag empty, saying, "There 
is thy bag again. Thy creditors are satisfied and my word out of 

"Who received it," said the King, "the brewer or the baker?" 

"Neither," said Will, "but Cardinal, answer me in one thing, to 
whom dost thou owe thy soul ?" 

"To God," answesed Wolsey. 

"To whom thy wealth ?" 

"To the poor," he replied. 

"To the poor at the gate, I have paid the debt which thou 
yieldest is due. Therefore thou hast lost, Cardinal." 

The King laughed heartily, and so did the Cardinal, but it 
grieved him at the heart. 

Tbe fool of Charles I, Archie Armstrong, once also administered 
a severe criticism on another churchman, Archbishop Land. One 
day when the Archbishop and several great lords were dining with 
the King, Archie begged the privilege of saying grace. This being 
granted, he folded his hands and solemnly said, "Great praise be 
triven to God, and little Land to the devil." 

The Archbishop, wild with rage, never forgave Archie, ami 
afterwards, it is said, secured his dismissal from Court. 

The verdict of succeeding generations, however, is that the fool 
was correct in his estimation of Land's character. 

In the fool, as in his other characters, Shakespeare gradually 
reaches a climax of development. Thus from the clowns of the 
Comedy of Errors, or the Two Gentlemen of Verona, is gradually 
evolved tho greater conception of Touchstone in "As You Like 
It," who nevertheless in this process of eh aracter-e volution is far 
inferior in nobility and verisimilitude to that wisest of fools, The 
Fool in King Lear. 

This character, than whom none other shows Shakespeare's 
power of delineation better, was cast into heroic mould, and is the 


key, in our opinion, to the proper understanding of the whole play, 
bringing into grand relief the gigantic figure of Lear, with all of 
its strength and passion. Like all others of his kind " he uses his 
folly like a stalking horse, and under the presentation of that, he 
shoots his wit." 

We notice, too, that the character of the fool grows upon us the 
farther we advance into the action of the play. Introduced rather 
precipitately, he immediately becomes "part and parcel" of the 
story and fully understanding the situation he throws himself on 
the side of his master, whom he most heroically defends, shielding 
him against the vile vituperations of the "dog-hearted" Goneril. 
Thus when Groneril first comes in, to rail at her aged father, the 
fool divines her meaning even before she speaks, and breaks into 
the most bitter sarcasm, indicative of his master's improvidence 
and consequent present insignificance. 

This gives Goneril an opportunity to complain and to cover her 
innate ingratitude by an assumption of injured innocence and 
long-suffering forbearance that is made all the more black and 
hideous in its profound hypocrisy and revolting deceit, by the 
timely interruptions of the fool, who pertinently says, in the 
assumed tone of imbecility: "The hedge sparrow fed the cuckoo 
so long that it had it head bit off by it young." Which couplet, 
worthy of a philosopher in its applicability and truth at this par- 
ticular juncture, is then set off by the following blank, irrelevant 
expression, " So out went the candle and we were left darkling," 
assumed only for the better display of what precedes, and also to 
indicate his irresponsibility. 

And when at last the horrible truth, the dreadful reality, for 
which the previous philosophizings of his fool had somewhat pre- 
pared him, bursts upon the old King, his mind benumbed by the 
blow, refuses at first to believe the awful fact. 

But not being able to discredit the testimony of his senses, he 
feebly essays to disbelieve in his own identity, as if that were the 
only way to ward off this unfilial nightmare, which hangs over 
him like a threatening Nemesis, ready to swoop down and hurl 
him into hopeless misery. 

Thus he mutters, " Does any one here know me ? This is not 
Lear. Who is it that can tell me who I am?" And like the 


knell of the funeral bell to the ear of the condemned deserter, the 
fool sadly answers, " Lear's shadow." 

And when, at last, Lear heart-broken with the agony of the 
realization, "How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is to have a 
thankless child," is leaving the designing Goneril, with curses on 
his lips, the fool's comment, expressed in the jingling rhyme of 
idiocy, yet containing a world of meaning is the health- 
ful expression of a noble, generous heart. Thus voicing the senti- 
ment of a natural and just resentment, he says, 

"A fox when one has caughter, 
And such a daughter 
Should sure to the slaughter, 
If my cap would buy a halter, 
So the fool followed after." 

Then Lear, in all the noble confidence of his great soul, rides 
post-haste to his other daughter, Regan, from whom he fondly 
expects different treatment. But the fool, keener than his 
master, foreseeing this other withering truth, the still more fero- 
cious temper of Eegan, prepares his master for her utter heartless- 
ness by a series of riddles which cannot but convey even to the 
enfeebled mind of the old king, the expectation of the hardly-to-be- 
belioved reality of her wickedness and entire lack of filial love. 

Almost maddened by this premature revelation, by this pro- 
phecy, he yet rides furiously onward, determined to disbelieve. 

Finally he comes upon his messenger, Kent, in the stocks. This 
is another terrible awakening. Even then with his former per- 
versity increased by an unwillingness to credit the testimony of 
his eyes, or even the words of the unfortunate Kent, he refuses to 
believe. It cannot be true. And when at last he goes into the 
storm, for shelter, turned, like a vile beggar, out of doors, into the 
drenching rain and cruel beating wind with a heart bursting with 
woe, a mind shattered by blasted hopes, and the sharp words 
hissed from the venomous throats of those fiends in human shape, 
his daughters' still rankling like poisoned arrows in his memory, 
the poor King yet finds an ardent though sorrowful sympathizer 
in the poor fool, who now vainly strives to " outjest Lear's heart- 
struck injuries." 

And thus, the now utterly demented King wanders aimlesslj'- 


through the terrible violence of that awful storm, unmindful of its 
fury, with no one but a poor fool for his companion and protector- 
This is surely one of the saddest passages in all literature. 
The very elements, seem in their demoniac rage to be conspir. 
ing against the " poor old man," who, with no place to lay his 
aged head, or to shelter his decrepit body from the cold chilling 
rain, raves with fury terrible, manifesting a strength of passion, 
which is sublime in its grandeur. 

The character of Lear, so full of passion, of that which is em- 
blematic of all that is terrific and powerful, intense and distorted 
in man ; as the wild lightnings and the roaring thunder, the cold 
rain and the howling hurricane are typical of all that is wild and 
fierce in Nature, would strain the mind with its superhuman 
excess, were it not relieved by the presence of his solitary com- 
panion, the sole sharer of his misfortunes, the faithful fool. The 
contrast is indeed a powerful one. 

Side by side, in life, we see the beautiful and the sublime, the 
ridiculous and the base. It is then that the wise man's mad- 
ness, made emphatic by the bitter surroundings, assumes a more 
determined cast. It is then, too, that the fool's wisdom shines out 
the more brilliantly ; for we feel that of the two he is the wiser, 
and instinctively lean on his peculiar personality to aid the King 
in his dire extremity. The ravings of Lear, the wise, and even 
philosophical rejoinders of the fool alternate, and together with 
the sublimity and grandeur of the tempest impress the reader 
with such lofty magnificence of effect as has been excelled by no 
other writer. 

This effect is undoubtedly largely due to the seemingly incon- 
gruous clement of the fool. And, just here, is where Shakespeare 
rises above all other artists in his greater subtlety and knowledge 
of the secrets of nature as manifested in the workings of the 
human mind. Thus his methods of combination are sometimes 
what a superficial critic might deem unnatural and inartistic, 
when a deeper insight and a profounder mind would discover the 
truthfulness and hidden beauties of the picture. 

Nothing, indeed, can be finer than the scene in the hovel, where 
Lear, Kent, Edgar and the fool crouch shiveringly for refuge. 
How diversified in character, expression and action, are the indi- 


viduals of this group. The sturdy common sense of Kent, the 
madness of Lear, the wise babblings of the fool and the assumed 
idiocy of Edgar, together show a power of character differentia- 
tion, which has never been surpassed. 

This scene may truly be called, the tragedy of fools, since every 
person in it either has, or assumes some mental infirmity, with the 
exception of Kent, whose sanity only throws into greater prom- 
inence the imbecility of his companions. 

Who, indeed, in this play is more of a hero than the poor fool? 
When dangers threaten, who but he sympathizes with and soothes 
to rest the tottering intellect of the king ? Who is kinder and 
more true than he? Like some guardian angel he unceasingly 
watches over his old master, with never a sigh cf weariness, or 
regret, ever on the alert to amuse and to be of service. And when 
hopeless despair like a vampire has fastened itself on the mind 
and fortunes of the King, he yet remains true. 

Well, might this play be called, the triumph of Love, which so 
discloses the simple devotion of so sweet a character. 

Just as certain delightful odors are only exhaled, when their 
parent flowers are crushed ; so does his sweetness rise from the 
wreck of his misfortunes. 

Poor fool, as the personification of sympathy wilt thou go down 
the ages, admired and blessed as long as the human heart has 
feeling, and the mind, nobility and truth. 

Leonard C. Van Noppen. 



University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, N. C, Feb. 11, 1892. 

Whereas, Divine Providence has seen fit to remove from among 
us our great and honored fellow-member, Alfred M. Scales; there 
fore be it 

Resolved, That in his death the Dialectic Society loses a faithful 
and active member, the University a wise counsellor and sincere 
friend, and the State a man whose courage and devotion to duty 
were tested and proven on the battle- field, whose wisdom and integ- 
rity were conspicuous at the nation's council-board, and whose high 
executive ability adorned and graced the gubernatorial chair. 

Resolved, That we extend our warmest sympathies to his family 
in this sad hour. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of 
the Dialectic Society ; that a page be dedicated to his memory ; that 
the hall be draped in mourning ; that a copy of these resolutions be 
sent to the family of the deceased, and that they be published in the 
University Magazine and the various State papers. 

F. P. Eller, I 

V. H. Boyden, >■ Committee. 

L. C. Van Noppen, ] 


— The University Magazine each year meets with the same criticism 
and as this criticism seems to be offered in a friendly spirit by certain of 
our contemporaries, we have thought it might not be amiss for the editors 
to express their views on what should be the aim and scope of a college 
magazine. Certain of our friends tell us, in rather a confidential way, that 
we do not make the Magazine interesting, that it lacks sprightliness. We 
know of only one way by which we can get the exact meaning of this word 
" interesting," and that is to judge by the character of those of our contem- 
poraries who have kindly offered us the criticism — for, of course, they are 
" interesting." If this interj:>retation be a correct one, we would say that it 
is not our aim to be " interesting " and hence no adverse criticism should 
be passed upon us on this score. 

As we understand it, there should be, at least, some difference between 
the aims and purposes of a daily newspaper and a college magazine. They 
differ widely in this general position in journalism. It is certainly not to 
the pages of his college magazine that a reader looks for his political infor- 
mation. For instance, he does not wish to find in his monthly collegian, 
an editorial on " The People's Party," or "Cleveland and Hill," or " The 
War with Chile." Editorials on these subjects are altogether out of place 
in such a magazine. Nobody cares for the editor's private opinion and all 
information desired can be obtained from the daily papers. 

College journalism has a distinctive field and a college magazine is made 
neither instructive nor "interesting" by wandering from its true sphere 
into that of the political or religious newspaper. It is no evidence of his 
ability as a writer or as a thinker for the editor to fill up his pages with 
editorials on subjects entirely out of his line. The editors of this magazine 
endeavor to make it "The University Magazine" and they believe that 
it is the business of any college magazine, first, to give alumni and friends 
information about the institution, about botli her present and her former 
students — what they do, and think concerning college matters, and sec- 
ondly to publish interesting and instructive articles on historical, literary 
or scientific subjects. In other words that a college magazine should "deal 
with college subjects. 

This is our aim and we flatter ourselves that we come somewhere near 
it. If any of our readers do not find the Maca/.ink "interesting." we are 
sorry, and would recommend him to read " Puck," " The Sportsman," or 
"The Daily Newsgatherer," whirh, we hope, he will find worthy of that 
excellent adjective, " interesting." 


— The Course in Elocution is nearly over. Mr. Hamberlin has done 
good and faithful work and has impressed himself on his classes not only 
as a most efficient instructor but also as a pleasant and highly cultured 
gentleman. We hope that this course will become a permanent one and 
that Mr. Hamberlin can be secured as the instructor. The course ought 
to last, at least, two months and the Faculty would do well to consider this 
matter from all sides. The students who have been enabled to improve 
themselves in the Art of Expression feel grateful to President Winston 
and Dr. Hume for their interest in this matter. 

— It is generally understood that the Fellowships which were established 
recently, are to be given upon certain conditions, one of which is that 
every Fellow must teach in that department of the University in which he 
is taking a post-graduate course. For instance, that a Fellow in English 
must teach a class in Freshman English a certain number of hours each 
week. We hope that this is not true, but if it is true, that the Faculty 
will carefully consider this matter again One principal reason why a 
graduate of the University wishes to return and take a postgraduate 
course is that he may devote his whole time to some particular study. 
Now, if his time is to be taken up by teaching Freshmen and preparing 
for his class-room work, the most important object which he has in view 
when he returns, is lost. No student can do high-grade work in any spe- 
cial line, unless he can give his undivided efforts to his studies in this 
chosen line. We respectfully ask the authorities of the University for a 
consideration of this side of the matter, as several members of the present 
senior class, who have been thinking of applying for Fellowships after 
their graduation, will not do so, if this condition is retained. We would 
like to see a large number of post-graduate students at the University for 
they would not only do work which would reflect great credit on the 
Institution, but they would also have a decidedly beneficial effect on the 
character of the general body of students. 

— The Wilmington Messenger in a recent issue has a very valuable sug- 
gestion which we hope will meet with the approval of Dr. Battle. It sug- 
gests that the History Department collect all the important historical and 
biographical addresses which have been delivered at various times in the 
State, and carefully edit them for publication in good book form. The 
University Library has a great many of these addresses, but as thev are 
not indexed or even in many cases bound together, it is very difficult to 
make much use of them, 

These biographical addresses, prepared in most cases by intimate friends 
of men who have been distinguished in their State, are most invaluable 
materials for the historical student and are also very interesting for the 
general reader. If they could be collected and well edited, the History 
Department would deserve the gratitude of the people of the State. 


— The Lecture-rooms of the University have been greatly improved both 
in comfort and in convenience, all except one have had new seats put in 
them and the small tables add greatly to the convenience in note-taking. 
But the seats in the English room are exceedingly uncomfortable and it is 
impossible for the student to take any notes or do any writing whatever in 
this department. There are more students in the English classes than in 
any other of the University and it seems that the room ought to beat least 
as comfortable as the other rooms. On the principle " put yourself in his 
place," we suggest that the Faculty hold several long meetings in this 
room and then we will have chairs and tables like those in the History 
room, for example. If the Faculty will investigate the matter, we are sure 
they will make the much-needed improvements. 


— The University Glee-club has become an importantand well-established 
feature of our student life. After long and careful training under Prof. 
Harrington, to whom great credit is due, the boys ventured to give a public 
entertainment first in the college chapel. This was such a splendid suc- 
cess that they went further and have given very successful and highly 
creditable performances at Raleigh, Winston, Greensboro and Durham. 

Everything that helps to broaden our life should receive encouragement 
from Faculty and students. This the Glee-club, Athletic Association, etc., 
do, and any who are disposed to regard these features of University life 
with an unfriendly eye, ought at least to understand them well before 
declaring against them. It should be remembered that we are situated in 
a small village, away from the outside world and that unless we, now and 
then get a glimpse into the life of our larger towns and cities, we will go 
away from the University with knowledge of books only. To study books, 
while it is the chief reason why we come here, is not the only reason. 
These features which draw us occasionly away from our studies have been 
the means of doing a great deal of good. We have in mind several stu- 
dents, who came from the country and in some cases had never seen a 
large town, but who were greatly improved in their scholarship by several 
visits to Raleigh with the Foot Ball Team. By all means let us encourage 
the Glee-club, Foot Ball and Base Ball teams and we will see great benefits 
coming from them. 


— The reorganization of the University Athletic Association was effected 
a few weeks ago, with the general supervision of athletics, including foot 
ball, base ball and track athletics. This is a step in the right direction for 
without organization and methodical work there can be no effective results 
attained. Our efficient captain of last year's foot ball eleven, has been 
re-elected and candidates are now in training, and from the present out- 


look we will put a strong team in the field next fall. We would recom- 
mend that a business manager be elected at once. As for track athletics, 
this is a new feature in our University and one that, we hope, will meet 
with the hearty co-operation of the student body. It is impossible at this 
date to say with any degree of certainty whether or not we will have a 
team to put in the field this spring, yet our gymnasium instructor, Mr. 
Chas. Mangum, who has been elected captain will, we feel confident, put 
forth every effort to develop a good team. Mr. Oldham, who did such 
good work as catcher last year, has been elected captain of the base ball 
nine and will be a harder worker in this responsible position. 

Our prospects are not what we would call flattering, but it is only by hard 
work and steady training that a good team is developed. Without these 
w£ cannot expect to do much. Too much attention cannot be paid to this 
feature. We are aware that the candidates are rather averse to working in 
the gymnasium, but this part of the training is essential so that when the 
weather admits outdoor work, they will be hardened and in condition to 
make the best use of the short time for practice. 

The interest among the students is not what it should be. The players 
are greatly encouraged and stimulated by the presence of students on the 
field. Last but not least we would earnestly request every one to aid not 
only by their presence, but financially, for this is absolutely necessary for 
the maintenance of the team. B. 

We would call the attention of the students to the above and recom- 
mend their hearty co-operation in the athletic features of the University. 
There is no reason why we should not take a creditable position in athletics 
and we can do so if all the students give their support and sympathy to 
those upon whom the greater part of the burden falls. — [Ed.] 

— We give below some college regulations which we found in an old cat- 
alogue of a University in China and as they have quite a foreign sound we 
will give them as illustrations of the differences between some Universities 
in America and one in China. It was quite difficult to translate, but with 
the help of Gilp's Lexicon and Anglo-Saxon translation we have succeeded 
in at least, setting the spirit of these strange, foreign Rules. (The Italics 
are not our own.) 

Rule I. Since promptness is a desirable thing both in students and in 
Professors, it is ordered that students must be in the Lecture room 
promptly, and that Professors must dismiss their classes promptly at the ringing 
of the bell. 

Rule II. Since continued conversations and the asking of useless ques- 
tions during a lecture, by members of the different classes, interfere with 
the rights of the whole class and consumes the time of the Professor, any 


member of any class guilty of either of the above shall be denied the use 
of the Shakspere club library for one whole week. (Notice that Shakspere 
has been translated into Chinese.) 

Rule III. Since this is a University, and as such must maintain its dig- 
nity, students are prohibited from playing all childish games with hard, 
round bits of clay (meaning knucks!) and further from congregating under 
other students rooms thereby preventing them from studying. 

Rule IV. Since all men are created free and equal, no Professor shall be 
allowed any privilege outside the class-room, not accorded to students. 
This is to prohibit Professors from talking or wearing their hats in the 
library, which is owned by students and the Institution. 

Rule V. Since all persons are entitled to equal protection by the 
authorities of this University, any and every person who shall willfully 
perpetrate a pun upon an unoffending student shall die and his soul be 
condemned to dwell upon the banks of the river Styx. 

Rule VI. Since truth crushed to earth will rise again, no student need 
hope to escape any punishment by telling a falsehood. 



— The Wake Forest Student for January, if we except an inappropriate 
editorial on " The Speakership" and one or two others that have no place 
in the editorial column of a college journal, is unusually unique. The 
article on " North Carolina as a field for writers," by Houston Neal, is 
worthy of especial mention, but more for its suggestiveness than for its 
exhaustiveness. The writer closes with the following appeal : " May a 
writer yet come forward who will give a complete history of our State — not 
in one volume, for in one he could hardly tell the beginning, but let him 
write till he has told us all, and may the novelist and poet immortalize 
the deeds of North Carolina's sons, as can so well be done by the gifted 

— We are glad to welcome to our board The Sequoia, a bi-weekly pub- 
lished by the students of Leland Stanford Jr. University. The last num- 
ber is a " Congress edition " and thus speaks of the organization of a stu- 
dents' Congress in the University : 

"The members of the Students' Congress met for organization December 
12th. The movement was in response to a general desire on the part of 
the students for some kind of a society which would afford them needed 
training in parliamentary practice and debate. The form adopted is also 
intended to render them conversant with the leading social and economic 
problems of government and with their practical treatment. 

"The Congress is a hypothetical House of Representatives in which the 
members are appointed to the several States upon the basis of representa- 
tion in the national body, and the work is intended to conform as nearly 
as practicable to that of the original." 

— Much has been said, but little written, and still less done about the 
disgusting and unhealthy habit of throwing filth out of our dormitory win- 
dows. Bowdoin College seems to have the same trouble and the Bowdoin 
Orient thus speaks in regard to it : 

" There is a vigorous stand that should be taken by those in authority. 
There should be an absolute prohibition of throwing filth from the dormi- 
tory windows. The practice can be stopped if the proper remedy is 
applied. When a man knows that as goes his waste material out of the 
window so goes he out of college, he will be exceedingly thoughtful and 
have exceedingly good command over himself, and he will not be so until 
he feels the horrors of the above mentioned doom hanging over him. La 
grippe and typhus are too prevalent for the permission of garbage around 
the halls. 


— In this issue we give unusual prominence to the quotation of original 
college verse with the hope that it may inspire our own students to similar 
efforts. The writing of poetry is excellent literary training, and then it 
adds greatly to the interest of a college journal to have it spiced through- 
out with original verse. The Red and Blue of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania has arrived at an unusual degree of excellence in this line. It is 
perhaps because her poets have found that the only true road to poetic 
success is the "jagged way." The following from the Red and Blue doubt- 
less explains our own failure : 

Wings ! Wings ! It ever is the cry 

Of many a one who fain would try 

Ideal nights of poetry, 

The more fools they, who cannot see 

There's many a one who might have "flown" 

Had he let thought of wings alone, 

And labored up the jagged wav, 

Nor tried for easier paths than they 

Who, toiling up in pain, have told 

Glad tales of heaven to ones less bold. 

Poets whom fame tells us have " flown," 

Climbed by the hardest work ever known. 

— The Amherst Literary Monthly is one of our best exchanges. The fol- 
lowing pointed editorial on the conduct at morning prayers at Amherst 
may contain suggestions for us : 

" The Lit has had its attention called to the generally disgraceful con- 
duct of students at morning prayers. With few exceptions there is little 
or no attention given to the exercises, and a great deal given to other 
affairs. There is much loud whispering and sometimes even talking. The 
Lit has no doubt that this state of affairs is largely due to the fact that 
attendance on these exercises is compulsory and it is obliged to admit that 
it is a very natural result of such compulsion. But so long as it is a fact 
that there is a large number of students who wish and expect to derive 
benefit from attendance at chapel, will not a sense of common politeness 
lead the rest to remain quiet during the exercises ?" 

— We are glad to welcome to our board the College Message, a monthly 
journal published by the students of the Greensboro Female College. The 
Message is large, neatly printed, and well edited — in fact is in everyway as 
interesting and as attractive as the young ladies who edit it. On the 
frontispiece is an excellent portrait of the President of the College, Dr. B. 
F. Dixon, whom we all remember so pleasantly. 


— We congratulate the Davidson Monthly on its new dress. The Monthly 
seems to be improving in every way. There is no reason why Davidson 
should not publish one of the foremost literary magazines of the South. 
The present board of editors is making steps in the right direction. 

— We notice a similar improvement in the dress and size of the Palo 
Alto. This magazine has developed wonderfully in the last few months 
until now it is one of the most attractive journals that ever reaches this 
editors board. 

— The Trinity Archive for January is hardly a representative number. It 
lacks that interest in college life that it usually possesses. The editorials 
on " Home," and " Political Corruption " and possibly also the one on 
"Formative influences upon character," were more appropriate elsewhere, 
we think, than in the editorial columns on a college journal. 

— Thaks to our friend the Guilford Collegian for its frank criticism. 
Whether we can agree with the Collegian or not we take the criticism in 
the best spirit. We invite that same frankness of criticism which we 
endeavor to make use of in speaking of our contemporaries. If such 
frankness were more common we might have an improvement all around. 

— We desire to add to our exchange list the Richmond College Messenger, 
and the Georgia University Magazine in addition to those above spoken of. 


"The editor sat in his sanctum, 

Letting his lessons rip ; 
Racking his brains for an item, 

And stealing all he could clip. 

" The editor sat in his class room 

As if getting over a drunk, 
His phiz was clouded with awful gloom, 

For he made an awful flunk. 

"The editor returned to his sanctum, 

And hit himself in the eye, 
He swore he had enough of the business ; 

He would quit the paper or die." 

— Vanderbilt Observer. 

— The Princeton Senior elections lasted all night. — Swarthmore Phoenix. 

— James Russell Lowell bequeathed a large part of his library to Har- 
vard. — Swarthmore Phcenix. 

— The average expenses of the Yale class of '91 was $1,000 yearly. — Ex. 

— Bryn Mawr and Wellesley talk of organizing an inter-collegiate ath- 
letic association. — Free Lance. 

— In the last six years, 389 students of the Prussian schools have com- 
mitted suicide on account of failure in examinations. — Ex. 

— The amount of elective work which Harvard allows is 80 per cent ; 
Michigan University allows 75 per cent ; Kansas State University 33 per 
cent ; Oregon University allows nine. — Ex. 

" How doth the little busy bee 

Improve each shining hour ? 
And gather honey all the day 

From every open flower ? 

" It's largely done by industry, 

By hustling round the earth ; 
And working everything that's green 

For all the thing is worth." 

— Brunnnian. 


— At the Nebraska University Chancellor Canefield suspended chapel 
exercises so as not to interfere with a cane rush. — Palo Alto. 

— According to an exchange, the girls of Smith College have formed a 
Hare and Hound club. The young women, dressed in gymnasium suits, 
had a cross-country run a few weeks ago, in which they covered seven miles. 

— At Johns Hopkins the students have a House of Commons modeled 
after the English body, with a Speaker and Secretary of Home and For- 
eign affairs. The ministry brings in the subjects for discussion. — Ex. 

— Northwestern University has taken a new departure in college gov- 
ernment. Hereafter matters of difference between faculty and students 
will be referred to a committee of ten students and five members of the 
faculty. Three of the ten students are chosen by both of the upper classes 
and two by the lower classes. 


In Anglo-Saxon we discover 
" Lemman " is the word for lover. 
Perhaps with them began the pleasing 
Modern art of lemon squeezing. 

— Brunonian 

Said Atom unto Moly Cule, 

Will you unite with me ? 
And Moly Cule did quick retort 

There's is no affinity. 

Beneath electric light plant's shade, 
Poor Atom hoped he'd metre, 

But she eloped with a rascal base, 
And her name is now salt petre. 

— Exchange. 

— The following verse of Latin, says the Vanderbilt Observer, was found by 
a student is his travels during his vacation : 

" Hos sed Mare Heres ago. 
Fortibus es in aro 
Nos sed Bila Thebe trux 
Vatis enim ! Pes et dux." 

Translated : 

" Ho !" said Mary, here's a go !" 
Forty busses in a row." 

" No," said Billy, 
" They be trucks." 
"What is in em?" 
" Peas and ducks." 


— A feature of the new Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell is a profes- 
sorship of the History and Philosophy of Religion and Christian Ethics, 
the first of the kind in America. Professor Tyler will trace the origin of 
religious tendencies in man ; and, though not denying the theory of evolu- 
tion, will consider prehistoric man as the son of God, since he had in him 
the potentiality of all that he has become since. — Ex. 

— President David Starr Jordan, of Leland Stanford, Jr. University, 
seems to have aroused the anger of the Farmers' Alliance of California by 
criticising the idleness of the farmers. The Napa County Farmers' Alli- 
ance passed the following resolution : " We denounce as false and malig- 
nant the charge against the farmers that ' they idle away their time ' 
made by President Jordan of the Stanford, Jr. University, and consider 
the man very much out of place at the head of the greatest institution the 
world ever saw." 

— First girl (exclaims suddenly while reading Horace) — " I don't like 
him, he's too conceited." 

Second girl (with a far-away look in her eyes, and evidently thinking of 
something else) — u I think he's real handsome-" — Ex. 


"The scene was in a billiard room, 

And I was there to view it : 
The balls rolled close together and — 
They kissed, I saw them do it." 

To meet her is my chief delight : 
All care and sorrow take their flight 
Whene'er I chance on path or stile. 
To meet her. 

And so in verses gay and bright 
In praise of all her charms I write, 
My fancies running all the while 
To metre. 

Freshman — Walks, Talks. 
Sophomore — Moon, Spoon. 
Junior — Kiss, Bliss, Gate, Late. 
Senior — Nice, Splice. 
Alumnus — Boy, Joy. 

— Brunonian. 


— Exchange, 


I'm flunking, Prexie, flunking, 
In my old familiar way ; 
For I disdain to study, 
So I bluff" it every day. 

I despise the man who worries, 
Over text books all the while ; 
I believe in calling, 
My leisure to beguile. 

For we all have social natures, 
To which we must attend ; 
And though the people guy us, 
We always stay till ten. 

I am flunking, Prexie, flunking, 
That you know full well, 
I am semper non paratus ; 
My flunks no tongue can tell. 

But I am fresh and gaily, 
My cheek is solid brass ; 
I shall e'er be "semper idem" 
E'en till I flunk my last. 

— Alhenceum. 

— Bishop F. J. Hurst, of the M. E. Church, has been chosen chancellor 
of the Grant University about to be erected at Washington, D. C. This insti- 
tution will be non-sectarian and wholly conducted on a European plan, 
will be a source of pride to our country. Valuable property has been 
secured and a large portion of the requisite amount ($10,000,000) has been 
raised. When completed it will be a university in the true sense of the 
word. — Ex. 


Vainly he racked his cranial store, 

Seeking to find histoiic lore, 
"History repeats itself," said he, 
w Oh ! now repeat thyself to me." 



" We are the undertakers 

Best in the East and West ; 
You've just to kick the bucket 
And then — we do the rest." 

— Brunonian. 


— An interesting debate between Harvard and Yale took place at Cam- 
brige January 13th. The question was : "Resolved that a young man 
casting his first ballot in 1892 should vote the Democratic ticket," Harvard 
was on the negative. It was wisely decided that no decision should be ren- 
dered. The debate is said to have been a great success. The second 
debate is to be held in New Haven March 25th. The subject for discussion 
will be : '' Resolved that a college education unfits a man for business." 

— The Harvard- Yale Union debate has called out numerous editorials in 
the college papers. All vibrate to one melancholy strain ; all lament the 
lack of interest for debate in collges. and demand action. Bowdoin, within 
the last few years, has reiterated the same thing ; but to no purpose. The 
fact is, the phases of college life have wonderfully multiplied within fifty 
years. No student can take in all, and those which appear least desirable 
to the students in general go to the wall. So it has been largely with pub- 
lic debate. The question merely is, have students made a bad choice, 
have they let go that which they should have kept ? The doctrine of 
psychology, that we must deliberately murder some desirable things, has 
been carried out. Debate has been murdered for the sake of other things. 
Is the murder justifiable? — Bowdoin Orient. 

— The following paragraphs contain welcome news for the American 
scholar : 

"One of the largest book deals ever consummated in America was closed 
this afternoon, by cablegram, the Univrrsity of Chicago being the pur- 
chaser, and S. Simon of Berlin the seller. The library contains 280,000 
volumes and 120,000 dissertations in all languages. Among these there 
are 200 manuscripts from the eight to the nineteenth century; 1,600 vol- 
umes of paleography ; 25,000 journals and periodicals; 65,000 volumes of 
Greek and Roman arcluealogy, 65,000 Greek and Roman classics, 2,400 
volumes of Greek and Latin authors of modern times, 2,000 volumes of 
general linguistics, 2,500 volumes of history, 1,000 volumes of illustrated 
works of art, 5,000 volumes of physics, astronomy and mathematics, and 
5,000 volumes of natural history. 

President Harper obtained an option on the library when in Berlin, 
until Nov. 1. At a meeting of the board of trustees this afternoon, Major 
H. A. Rust, Martin A. Ryerson, Charles L. Hutchinson and H. H. Kohl- 
satt subscribed enough money to purchase the library, and Profes-or Har- 
per cabled the owners in Berlin that he would take the library, and ordered 
the packing to begin at once. The books will arrive here by March or 
April next. This deal gives Chicago fully 200,000 volumes not found in 
any library in the West, and many volumes and manuscripts not found in 


America. When packed the books will weigh 250 tons. The price paid is 
not made public. The catalogue price is between $600,000 and $700,000, 
and the estimated book-sellers' prices $300,000." 

The University of Chicago is indeed fortunate in being able to secure 
such a library for its students. The enterprise of Dr. Harper reveals to 
Europe that Americans are not altogether destitute of the desire of literary 
attainments. The other American colleges cannot but feel a pride in the 
achievment of Chicago University. — Quoted by Vanderbilt Observer. 


( Villanelle.) 

I little thought that Love would go 
So soon, or make so short a stay, 
But better now his ways I know. 

Love came with quiver full and bow 
Prepared to shoot so many a day 
I little thought to see him go. 

More like a friend he seemed than foe 
Who tuned my pipe and penned my lay ; 
But better now his ways I know. 

His face with fun and joy aglow 
He seemed to like with me to play 
Who little thought to see him go. 

But when I learned to love him, lo, 
The little Parthian ran away 
To other hearts that nothing know. 

Ah me, he seemed to love me so ! 
He seemed so very bright and gay, 
I little thought that Love would go ; 
But better now his ways I know. 

— Brunonian. 



High up in the closet he tearfully hangs them, 
Those old canvas garments bespattered with mud 

From fields upon which he had tusseled, fought, scrimmaged, 
And covered himself with glory and blood. 

He seemed to see tears in the eyes of the jacket, 
To hear his shoes hang out their tongues and exclaim, — 

'Tis hard, yes 'tis fearfully hard to believe it, 

That you, you poor senior, have played your last game. 

Next year you will live upon starvation wages, 
In a boarding house, say, in some dingy old town, 

Far off from the rush and the noise of the scrimmage, 
The referee's whistle, the loud cries of " down." 

Then sadly, ah sadly, he leaves them in darkness, 

And carefully straightens his disjointed nose, 
Then he winks bis swelled eye and longingly gazes' 

O'er the field that's now covered with winter's chill snows. — Ex. 


It was a pitiful mistake, 

An error sad and grim ; 
I waited for the railway train, 

The light was low and dim. 

It came at last, and from the car. 

There came a dainty dame j 
And looking up and down the place, 

She straight unto me came. 

" Jack 1 " she cried ; " dear old Jack ! " 
And kissed me as she spake : 
And looked again and frightened cried, 
" Oli, what a sad mistake ! " 

I said : " Forgive me, maiden fair, 

That I am not your Jack ; 
And as regards the kiss you gave 

I'll straitway give it back." 

And since that night I often stood 

On the platform lighted dim, 
And only once in a man's wholo life 

Do such things como to him. 

— Tin- Columbia Spectator. 


There are days when the sun shines warm and bright, 

When the skies are clear and blue, 
When the earth is filled with joy and light, 

And hearts are strong and true. 

Love, I love thee and thee only, 

Thee, and thee alone, 
What is sunshine, storm or rain ? 
What is sorrow, joy or pain ? 

Love is all our own. 

There are days when the sun is hid away, 

When the clouds conceal the blue, 
When the world seems dull and old and gray, 

And loving hearts are few. 

Love, I love thee and thee only, 

Thee, and thee alone, 
What is sunshine, storm or rain ? 
What is sorrow, joy or pain ? 

Love is all our own. 

But whether the world be gay and bright, 

Or dull and blind with rain, 
My heart, in spite of sorrow or joy, 

Sings ever the old refrain. 

Love, I love thee and thee only, 

Thee, and thee alone, 
What is sunshine, storm or rain ? 
What is sorrow, joy or pain ? 

Love is all our own. 

— Vassar Miscellany. 


— We clip the following poem from " The Ow/" making such changes as 
would be necessary to give it a practical application to our University. 
We are aware that our changes have somewhat mutilated the poem, but 
what it loses in literary meritwe trust has gained in practical application. We 
hope the Owl will excuse us for the mutilation : 


Bill orter larn philosophee, 
An' be high toned and literee, 
I'll chuck him down to Varsitee. 

Bill wasn't in it. 

He swaggered round so recklesslee 
You'd think he owned all Raleigh, 
He had a splendid libraree, 

But was'nt in it. 

His nights were spent at pokee 
At socials or some whist partee, 
He found English so prosee, 

He wasn't in it. 

Then went he with the Glee Clubee 
And swaggered all over the Statee, 
But such a thing as hard studee — 

He wasn't in it. 

But at exams he was afraidee 
He couldn't quite them passee, 
And as for Junior Englishee 

He wasn't in it. 

Then " Wilkes " lie bought a papee, 
Which asked him to the facultoo, 
Aloud Bill wailed so biterlee, 

O, I ain't in it. 

You ask what did the facultee ? 
They shipped poor Billee homee, 
Of course they were awful sorree, 

But Bill wasn't in it. 

His father said disgustedlee : 
"My son, yer done with Varsitee, 

Ye'll ?:ot yer hoe and stay with me," 

And William iliil it. 


— Perrin Busbee, Captain of last year's base ball team, paid us a short 
visit recently. 

— The editors of the Hellenian are busy with their work and hope to have 
the Annual ready by May 1st. 

— No news has been received from John D, of late, but we suppose that 
he and his " dear angle " are still true to each other. 

— Chas. E. Shelton, of Salem, has been elected third sub-ball manager 
from the Di. Society, to succeed W. H. Wood, who has resigned. 

— John D. Bellamy, Jr., 3rd, Class '94, and Pete Winborne, class '92, 
have been compelled to go home on account of sickness, and will not 
return this year. 

— The societies have chosen the following gentlemen as Representatives 
to deliver orations Tuesday night of Commencement : Di., F. P. Eller, 
T. J. Cooper, W. P. M. Currie ; Phi., F. C. Harding, S. F. Austin and W. 
P. Wooten. 

— Prof. Hamberlin's Elocution Class now numbers over forty. Prof. H. 
has made a very favorable impression on everyone, both in and out of the 
class room, and his instruction has been very beneficial. We shall regret 
to see him leave. 

— The Watson Hotel property has been purchased by a northern capi- 
talist, we are reliably informed, who will at once build a new hotel on the 
site now occupied by the old one. It is the intention of the purchaser to 
make this a winter resort. 

— Dr. H. (to Charlie Shelton on English) — " Mr. Shelton, what is the 
etymology of the word kirk, line 97 ? " 

Shelton immediately begins to blush, jrets confused, but finally is able to 
stammer out, " I have forgotten; Doctor." 

— Sunday evening, Jan. 31st, Rev. Dr. J. B. Cheshire, of Charlotte, 
preached the first of a series of sermons to be delivered monthly before 
the students by representative ministers of the different denominations. 
From Mark, 13th chapter, 12th verse, he preached a forcible, scholarly, 
and instructive sermon, which was greatly enjoyed by those whose pleas- 
ure it was to hear him. This movement, inaugurated by the Y. M. C. A., 
together with the University lectures will prove of incalculable benefit. 


— Mr. Patrick H. Winston, a native North Carolinian and an alumnus 
of the University, but now U. S. Attorney for Washington State, recently 
spent several days on the Hill on a visit to his brother, our highly esteemed 
President, and his son, now a student here. 

— For the next regular semi-annual inter-society debate in March, to be 
held in the Phi. Hall, C. F. Harvey has been chosen President, and 
Nathan Toms, Secretary. W. E. Darden and W. F. Harding will repre- 
sent the Phi., and H. R. Ferguson and L. C. Van Noppen, the Di. society 
in the debate. 

— The Athletic Association of the University of North Carolina has been 
organized, a constitution adopted, and the following officers elected : H. B. 
Shaw, President ; W. R. Kenan, Jr., Sec. and Treas. The Association will 
have charge of athletics of all kinds — foot ball, base ball, tennis, etc., and 
good results may be expected. 

— The following members of Dr. Manning's law class were granted 
license by the Supreme Court at the semi-annual examination, January 
29th and 30th : Wm. S. Bailey, Jas. L. Fleming, Daniel E. Hudgins, Lloyd 
J. Lawrence, Hersey B. Parker, Jr., Thomas M. Lee, Geo. W. Ward and 
Henry A. Gilliam. It is quite a compliment to Dr. Manning's instruction 
that no applicant, holding his certificate, has ever failed to pass the exam- 
ination before the Supreme Court. 

— J. M. Oldham, catcher on last year's base ball team, has been chosen 
Captain for this season, and S. A. Ashe, Business Manager. Both are well 
qualified for their respective positions. The following games have already 
been arranged : University vs. Trinity, April 29th, at Raleigh ; U. vs. Wake 
Forest, May 3rd, at Raleigh ; U. vs. U. of Virginia, at Charlottesville, 
Va., May 10th and 11th. Washington and Lee has been challenged for 
May 12th, at Lynchburg, Va., and Guilford College for April 16th on the 
University's grounds, but no answer has yet been received. 

— On the evening of the second of February, the faculty and students 
and a few citizens assembled in Gerrard Hall to listen to a lecture on "The 
Influence of the Physical Features of North Carolina upon her People" by 
Prof. Joseph A. Holmes, State Geologist. The lecturer traced the settle- 
ments of the various portions of the State by the colonists, described the 
physical features of each section, the character of the people, the present 
condition of the industries, and their probable future. "Suffice it to say," 
Prof. Holmes did justice to his subject, and his audience was highly enter- 
tained. This was one of a series of University lectures to be delivered 
before the students each month by eminent scholars. 


— The University Glee-club has visited several cities in the State, and 
wherever it has appeared has been complimented in the highest terms. 
Concerts were given at Winston, Salem Female Academy, Greensboro, 
Greensboro Female College, Raleigh, Durham and in the University 
Chapel. The club assisted in a concert given at Raleigh for the ben- 
efit of St. Mary's Guild. The proceeds, in excess of expenses, were devoted 
to benevolent purposes. The President, T. M. Lee, and Business Manager, 
H. E. Rondthaler, deserve credit for their management, and the club fully 
merits the praise which it has received both from individuals and from the 
press. To Prof. Harrington the Glee-club is especially indebted for his 
many kindnesses, his invaluable aid, and for the interest taken by him in 
its success. The following are the members and the programme : 

First Tenor — F. H. Batchelor, Chas. S. Mangum, J. A. Arthur, Jr. 

Second Tenor — F. B. McKinne, G. L. Peschau, R. E. Zachary, H. E. 

First Bass — H. L Harris, Chas. Roberson, W. B. Snow, T. M. Lee. 

Second Bass — Michael Hoke, E. P. Willard, J. H. Price, R. B. Arring- 

1. Medley. 

( The Pope, Yale Songs 

(Mermaid, " >' 

3. Quratette — "Stars of the Summer Night," Halton 

Messrs. Batchelor, Mangum. Lee and Hoke. 

4. Matin Bells, Yale Songs 

f. (Drinking Song, Burton 

0< (Church in the Wildwood, " 

6. Ching-a-ling, Students Songs 

Whistler, Mr. Lee. Solo, Mr. Rondthaler. 

7. Johnny Schmoker. U. N. C. Version 


1. We Meet Again To-night, YaleSongs 

2. Huettelein, Beschnitt 

Solo, Mr. Harris. 

o (Chapel Steps, Gow 

\ Nut-brown Maiden, YaleSongs 

4. Trio— "A Little Farm Well Tilled," Parry 

Messrs. Mangum, Lee and Harris. 

5. Little Dog, Carmina Collegensia 

Warbler, Mr. Mangum. 

6. Quintette — "Come Away," Polka Serenade, Schaefer 

Messrs. Batchelor, Mangum, Harris, Lee and Hoke. 

7. Who was George Washington? Ryley 

8. Old North State, ..Gaston 


— Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, Professor of History in Harvard University, 
spent a week in Chapel Hill during February, and delivered three lectures 
before the faculty and students in Gerrard Hall. 

In the first lecture on "The Romance of American Political Geography," 
Dr. Hart traced the development of the United States from the early set- 
tlements up to the present time, showing by means of maps and charts 
prepared by himself, the various changes in the boundaries of the United 
States brought about by war and purchase. The claims of the various 
States to the great western territory, the purchase of Louisiana, Texas, 
Florida, California and Alaska, and the influence of this newly acquired 
territory, the struggle of half a century between the free and slave States 
for more territory, giving rise to several compromises, finally terminating 
in the Civil War, were taken up and discussed in an able and instructive 

The subject of the second lecture was " The Organization of Congress." 
The number of Senators and Representatives to which each State is entitled, 
the districting of the State, " gerry-mandering," the organization of the 
two branches, the election of officers, the appointment of committees, etc., 
were treated in a very interesting manner by the speaker. Maps and 
charts were again used to show the representation of the different States in 
both Senate and House by parties, the increase in numbers in the two 
branches, and some of the peculiarities in the shape of the districts of 
the "gerry-mandered" States. 

The last, but none the less instructive and enjoyable, lecture was on 
" Methods of Teaching History." 

Dr. Hart is a gentleman of pleasing address and rare scholarly attain- 
ments, and his visit will be productive of much good to the University. 

— The village was disturbed by two alarms of fire Friday, February 1:2th. 
While the faculty and students were listening to Dr. Hart's lecture on 
" Methods of Teaching History," Prof. Williams' residence was found to 
be on fire. Immediately faculty, students and citizens hurried thither and 
the fire was soon extinguished. 

About three o'clock in the afternoon flames were discovered on the roof 
of the kitchen at Capt. Payne's residence. Tin* kitchen adjoins the house 
and but for the presence of mind of Miss Payne the result would have 
been serious. She discovered the tire and by means of blankets and rugs 
managed to smother the flames until help arrived. 

The loss in each oase was small, but had the flames once gotten under 
headway, the loss would have been great, a> a strong wind was blowing at 
the time. 


— Crawford Biggs, Chief Marshal, has appointed the following gentlemen 
sub-marshals to serve with him Commencement: from the Di. Society, A. 
S. Barnard, K. Jones, John A. Gilmer; from the Phi. Society, Julian 
Ingle, W. B. Snow and R. J. Southerland. 

— On the morning of the 12th of February, the exercises of the Univer- 
sity were suspended at 12 o'clock, and the faculty and students assembled 
in Gerrard Hall to do honor to the memory of Ex-Governor Alfred Moore 
Scales, an alumnus of the University and president of the Board of Trus- 

The services were opened with a suitable hymn by the choir, after which 
Dr. Hume read several appropriate passages from the Old and New Testa- 
ment, and offered prayer. 

Dr. Battle and Dr. Manning, being called upon, spoke of Gov. Scales' 
upright character and irreproachable conduct as a lawyer, member of the 
State Legislature, on the field of battle, in the halls of Congress, as Gover- 
nor, and as a private citizen. He was a man of the highest integrity, both 
in public and in private life, fearless in the performance of his duty, and 
deserving the boundless confidence placed in him by the people of his 
native State. By his death the State loses one ot her most loyal citizens, 
and the University a faithful friend. 

Dr. Winston then paid a strong tribute to Gov. Scales, Colonel Walter L. 
Steele, and Judge J. J. Davis, who were intimate friends in Congress, liv- 
ing in adjoining rooms, and though unlike in many respects, yet alike in 
possessing a blameless life and spotless record. 

The audience then by a rising vote unanimously adopted the following 
resolutions : 

Resolved, That the faculty and students of this University feel the pro- 
foundest sorrow at the death of one of its most eminent and esteemed 
Alumni, the late President of their Board of Trustees, Ex-Governor Alfred 
Moore' Scales. As citizen, soldier, statesman, he was always a model of 
courtesy and kindness, of open-handed generosity, of unflinching moral 
and physical courage, of the most straight-forward rectitude of purpose, of 
large intelligence and broad views, of energy, faithfulness and wisdom in 
the performance of all duties. This University is indebted to him, not only 
for constant friendship, but especially for active and successful aid in pro- 
curing a large addition to the powers of usefulness. 

Resolved, That we tender to his bereaved wife and relations our sincerest 
sympathy under this great affliction. 

Another hymn was then sung and the benediction pronounced by Dr. 


— Washington's birthday, in accordanc with an honored custom, was 
observed with appropriate exercises in the Phi. Hall. Mr. Geo. W. Con- 
nor acted as President, and at 1 1 o'clock called the house to order. Selec- 
tions from the farewell address of Washington to the people of the United 
States were read by the President, after which Mr. Frank Carter Mebane 
of Madison, in a few well-chosen remarks, introduced the orator of the day, 
Mr. Bart. Moore Gatling, of Raleigh. Mr. Catling's oration was very 
appropriate to the occasion, reflecting great credit on the orator. It was 
listened to with great attention by the audience, and they showed their 
high appreciation by long and hearty applause at its conclusion. 

In the afternoon the students assembled in Gerrard Hall to award med- 
als to the deserving Freshmen. 

S. T. Honeycutt was given ugly man's medal, though Isler and Moore 
were not far behind. Alex Winston received cheeky man's medal, though 
Henry Clay Brooks received a large vote. "Hawkins" Pruden and Rog- 
ers tied for lazy man's medal, and the President cast the deciding vote for 
the former amid loud cries of •' Illegal Election ! ! '" from the disappointed 
friends of Jake Battle. Pretty man's medal was carried off by Tom Little, 
with " Little Pat " a close second. Several were nominated for Dude, and 
though the friends of P. G.Graham, Ingle, John Gatling and Dick Arling- 
ton worked hard, Home C. was the successful candidate. Borer's medal 
was awarded to Weil without opposition, as were twister's to Van Noppen 
and fool's to Morris. Welsh, of course, received the medal for general 
cussedness, and Shelton was thought most worthy of blusher's medal as 
was Ruffin of conceited man's. When nominations for liar's medal were 
declared in order, Buck Guthrie, who carried off the same medal last year, 
was nominated and unanimously elected, showing the good judgment of 
the house. Much to the regret of his many friends, he was declared ineli- 
gible for a second term and W. R. Robortson was thought next best by the 

At night the University German Club gave a most enjoyable german in 
the Gymnasium, beautifully led by Will Kenan. Misses Mary Snow, Janet 
Badger, Kate Denson, Janet Fuller, Lucy Hawkins, Mattie Higgs, Susie 
Timberlake, Mamie Cowper, Minnie King and Etta McVea, of Raleigh ; 
Lizzie, and Rebecca Collins, of Hillsboro; Sallie Hill, of Faison's ; Bessie 
Dortch, of Aberdeen, Miss.; Eleanor Alexander and Laura Payne, of 
Chapel Hill, graced the occasion with their presence. Mrs. Dr. Alexander, 
Mrs. Julian Timberlake, (of Raleigh), and Mrs. H. 8. McRae acted as 
chaperons. The thanks of the club are due Victor Boyden, the President, 
for his valuable services in the arrangements for the occasion. 


— We are glad to learn that Peace Institute has organized a Glee-club. 
A concert was given during the second week of February, at the Institute, 
for the especial benefit of one of the young ladies who was unavoidably 
prevented from hearing the entertainments of our own club. In fact, as 
we understand it, the features of the programme were kept, as nearly pos- 
sible, similar to ours The warbling of Mr. Mangum is said to have been 
excellently rendered, while the " chords " were struck with a grace which 
no countryman can ever hope for ! On the whole, it was described as 
r rich, rare, and racy " treat. 




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Old Series Vol. XXII. No. 5. New Series Vol. XL 



George W. Connor, W. E. Rollins, 

C. F. Harvey. E. Payson Willard. 

Howard E. Rondthaler, } t> • -m- 

txt xi t. r -Business Maria 

W. E. Darden, J 


Published six times a year under the auspices of the Philanthropic and 
Dialetic Societies. Subscription, $1.00. Single copy, 20 cents. 

Entered at the Post Office of Chapel Hill as second class matter. 


Despite the possible imputation that praise of a near kinsman is 
only a sort of reflected self-laudation / I venture to give the outline 
of the life story of my nearest male progenitor, premising that if 
space permitted a fuller recital, the lives of few would furnish more 
varied and startling incident. 

To briefly summarize. In the fifteen years of his active public 
life he had been a representative in one or other branch of no less 
than four different State legislatures, a brigadier-general in com- 
mand during the Texas revolution, had laid the foundations of 
three cities now in train of full-fledged development, had by legis- 
lative enactment established the boundary line between Texas and 
Mexico, which led to the war between the U. S. and Mexico, and 
the resulting acquisition by us of New Mexico, Arizona, Calfornia 
and Nevada, and was the first active advocate of a railroad to the 
Pacific, giving as reason imperative public necessity gauged simply 
from a military standpoint and without reference to the great 
(East) Indian trade, which has been the making (omitting the 
unmaking), of every State claiming its monopoly. 

There's a record and a sustainable record of which no man need 
be ashamed. Born amidst the throes of political revolution, of 


which Jefferson and Hamilton were the incarnate embodiment of 
antagonizing ideas, he received the name and espoused the teach- 
ings of the first, and clung to them with unwavering tenacity until 
his final dissolution amidst the mighty clash of arms resulting 
some three score years later on. He ever held that his namesake 
was the wisest political thinker of all times, and that Mr. Calhoun 
was his worthy disciple. No public act of his did he ever deplore 
or deprecate, save his ungenerous persecution of a kindred intellect 
and one on the same line of thought. Speaking of this last self- 
poised and self-reliant giant, shipwrecked by emotional clamor and 
the force of circumstances, he has been heard to declare that "the 
best directed bullet that ever left the mouth of a pistol was when 
Col. Burr pulled trigger on the heights of Weehawken." 

He once took that unfortunate gentleman as text to inculcate a 
lesson to me, " Whilst Col. Bui*r pushed his contempt ot invidious 
public opinion to a fatal extreme, I would nevertheless have you 
my son imitate him to the extent of not attaching undue weight 
to the fulsome praise of over-zealous friends or the covert dispraise 
of inimical mouthers. He whose life motto is, ' meos sibi conscia 
recti,' 1 will not be unduly elated or depressed by either." 

He was partly educated at Chapel Hill and partly at the U. S. 
military academy. Returning home, he was elected to the Gen- 
eral Assembly, shortly after attaining his majority. Shortly there- 
after he married the daughter of Hon. Jesse Wharton, of Nashville, 
Tenn., who had figured in both Houses of Congress from that State. 

Thereupon he removed to Florida, then a territory, and engaged 
in planting until the death of his young wife five years later, hav- 
ing represented his county in the Legislature during that time. 
He thereupon repaired to Texas, which had lately declared her 
independence of Mexico, and tendered his services to the young 
republic just then emerging into statehood. 

It is safe to assert that no corresponding population of any age 
or country ever possessed such a galaxy of adventurous, daring 
spirits, and brilliant, brainy, cultured men. They poured in from 
all sections and many countries, but notably from the Southern 
States. A common impulse actuated all, namely to throw off the 
Mexican yoke and to erect a new republic identical with that on 
the other side of the Sabine. 


When it is taken into account that the incipient State covered an 
area about seven times greater than North Carolina and was occu- 
pied by a meagre population barely exceeding that of Wake county 
to-day, and that these had deliberately resolved to measure blades 
and try conclusions with an adjacent nation nearly two hundred 
to a unit in excess of numbers, the purpose ranks either as the 
superlative of madness or the sublimity of heroism. They dared 
to do it and they did it. 

Odds considered, it eclipses all the revolutions of antecedent time. 
Of course minimum in numbers had to be compensated by maxi- 
mum in men, and so it was. There were no dwarfs or cowards 
there, " but men, high minded men," and mostly of good old 
English stock. By any others the attempt would have been the 
acme of lunacy. Consider but a few of them, for small as their 
number was, it was too extended for a muster roll. There was 
Branch S. Archer, " the old Boman," the father of the revolution. 
Albert Sidney Johnston, by a later war catalogued with the recog- 
nized few greatest captains of all time. John Wharton, " the 
keenest blade that flashed on the field of San Jacinto," and Wil- 
liam, his well mated brother. Mirabeau Lamar, Statesman, soldier, 
poet, philanthropist, with inherent intellect permeating every drop 
of his blood. There was Felix Huston of fame punctilious, and 
grand old Busk, and Henderson and Hamilton, and Houston, Bur- 
leson, Burnet, Hunt, Milam Travis, Crockett, Bee, Buleson, Hays, 
McCulloch, Moore, Fisher, Sherman, Wilson, Anson Jones, Lub- 
bock, Smith and a legion of others too numerous to mention ; heroes 
one and all. 

"Souls made of fire, and children of the sun," were they, imbued 
with hatred of opi'ession and love of adventure. *We challenge 
any historic State, numbers considered, to mate at juncture that 
matchless chivalry in all the lofty attributes of true manhood. Let 
the slur of witlings be admitted, that some there were in that 
heterogeneous population, " who had quit their country for their 
country's good; " I for one will maintain, if needs be before a col- 

*General (afterwards Governor and Senator) Foote places the subject of 
this memoir in the fore front rank of those gallant spirits for services ren- 
dered his adopted country. (" Texas and Texans.") 


lege of cardinals, that self-sacrifice that prompted the following of 
such as these, condoned much previous offending. 

Charity is first in the eye of the most High. Where can higher 
illustration be found than in heroism which prompts self-immola- 
tion for principle and for posterity? Who knows that when the 
golden gates are being besieged by clamorous claim for admittance, 
that " Goliad " and "The Alimo" will not constitute better pass- 
port to the sympathetic old Janitor, who upon a generous impulse 
could chop off an ear, than will psalmody unsupported by regard 
for the rights of others? I can but believe that Peter will strain 
a point when Crockett and Travis and Fannin knock. 

Arriving in Texas in 1836, he was commissioned Brigadier-General 
and directed to return to " the States " and raise a brigade. This 
he promptly did, absorbing his entire fortune in the effort. Whilst 
so engaged in New Orleans, a ludicrous incident is reported to have 
occured in one of the Episcopal churches of that city. There was 
a striking likeness between his kinsman, the Rev. Leonidas Polk, 
and himself. One Sunday some of his recruits chanced to stray 
into a church where the latter on fighting bishop was officiating. 
One of them mistaking him for his senior officer, who was not over 
clerically inclined, remarked loud enough to be heard by most of 
the congregation : ''Well, boys, who'd a thought it, Uucle Jeff a 
preaching and in his shirt tail at that." It is needless to add that 
an unorthodox smile spread over the worshipers. In the mean- 
while the decisive battle of San Jacinto had been won against over- 
whelming odds and the Mexican Generalisimo was a puling pris- 
oner. Fate so ordained that Gen Green should arrive at Velasco 
on the identical day that Santa Anna was released and placed on 
:i war vessel to be carried to Vera Cruz. General Green believing 
this to be an unauthorized exercise of power on the part of some 
one, protested against its being carried out. Together with Gens. 
Hunt and Henderson under authority of President Burnet he went 
on board and brought him ashore. This action was fully sustained 
by the government, and the tyrant was consigned to his custody 
for safe keeping. During the time, he was my Father's guest and 
bedfellow. When their relations were subsequently severed, Gen. 

Green was made to feel acutely his long pent-up venom. The 
Mexican assassin ordered him heavily ironed and made to work- 


the roads. This last he emphatically refused to do though threat- 
ened with death as the alternative. (See his Journal.) 

For awhile the young republic enjoyed comparative immunity 
after her big neighbor had been taught on the San Jacinto the sort 
of material she was made of. But later on, Mexico relying on 
numbers and resources and her President having partially recov- 
ered from his panic incident to the San Jacinto "grip " and conse- 
quent confinement, began his incursions again and carried them on 
in a most merciless and demoniac spirit, scarcely equalled in bar- 
baric attroeity by any civilized people since the devastation of the 
Palatinate. Then it was as if by common consent of the sturdy set- 
tlers, a counter invasion was resolved upon. A force of two or 
three thousand was assembled, and all clamorous for retaliation. 
But through executive sharp practice and chicane, President 
Houston being opposed to the movement, the bulk of them were 
induced to disband and return to their homes. 

Some seven hundred, however, resolved to remain, and under 
command of Gen. Somerville an appointee of President Sam Hous- 
ton, crossed into Mexico. Their commander, however, imitating 
the Kina; of France, marched over and then marched back a<rain. 
Then under implied executive authority he started homewards 
with something like one-half of his command. Three hundred and 
four gallant fellows, however, refused to go and determined to 
recross the Rio Grande and try conclusions on the enemy's ground. 
The battle of Mier was the consequence, in which 261 Texians 
after inflicting a loss of over three times their number, upon a force 
of 23-40 under General Ampudia, were cajoled into a surrender by 
false claim and falser promise. It is a well established fact that 
Gen. Green, the second in command, protested most loudly against 
such purpose and called for a hundred volunteers to cut their way 
through the enemy's lines. These not being forthcoming, he was 
surrendered with the rest after firing with effect the two last shots 
and breaking his arms. 

They were then started on foot for the Castle of Perote for safe 
keeping, that being the strongest fortress in Mexico, Col. Fisher, 
Gen. Green and Capt. Henrie as interpreter being kept in advance 
as hostages for the good behavior of the others. When considera- 
bly advanced in the country, he found means to communicate with 


the command and enjoined upon them to make a break if oppor- 
tunity occurred without regard to himself and the other two. Thin 
they did at Salado, overpowering and disarming a guard of more 
than twice their number and started back for Texas. Subse- 
quently they were recaptured in the mountains in a starving con- 
dition and perishing of thirst. Then ensued one of the crowning 
infamies of Mexico's President, the tyrant Santa Anna. By his 
blood-thirsty order every tenth man of that little band of heroes 
was by lot taken out and assassinated. Upon receipt of news of 
the outbreak at Salado, the Captain of the advanced guard ordered 
a halt and the hostages to dismount in order to carry out his orders 
to shoot them. 

All preliminaries to the command "Fire" being arranged, the 
Captain who was a devout son of the established church, bethought 
himself of one oversight. "Gentlemen," he said through the inter- 
preter, " would you not like priestly consolation before we part 
company? " " Tell him no,"' was my Father's rejoinder, " that we 
belong to a race that knows but one Father confessor, and He 
seems to be unknown in this God-forsaken country." 

Being then asked if he would like to make a dying speech, the 
reply was, "Tell him yes, Dan, I have a d}'ing speech to make. 
That I had begun to think we were in charge of a gentleman and 
a soldier, but now discover the mistake ; that like most of his mon- 
grel race he is only a d — d cowardly assassin and hireling butcher." 

Poor Dan, who taught me Spanish a little later on, and who was 
by act of the U. S. Congress a little later the recognized hero of 
" Encarnacion " and of incalculable service to Gen. Taylor on the 
eve of Buena Vista, by information conveyed by him by means of 
one of the most reckless escapes ever made after that surrender; 
^Captain Ilcnric, J say, used laughingly to remark, that whilst 

•The incident deserves more than passing notice. Captain Benrie vras 

an ex-midshipman in the U. S. Navy, and Laughed at danger a- he did at 
most other things. lie was amongst the fust to volunteer in the Mexican 
war giving as reason that he intended "to got even with the green backed 
mulattoes over the Grande." When Col. Clay's command on advanced 
service were surrounded ami captured at Encarnacion, Dan was of the 
number. Sen. Ampudia recognising him. remarked, " and so I 'apt. Hen- 

lie we are to have the pleasure of your company hack to I'erote ! " " Ex- 


the General's " dying speech " was rendered in my best and most 
expressive " Castillian," 1 took the liberty of adding on my own 
hook, " Captain them's not my sentiments, I know you to be " muy 
valiente.'' Dan further added that the effect produced by the " dying 
speech " was electric and just the reverse of that anticipated. " Tell 
him," exclaimed the Mexican officer, " he is not mistaken. If Gen. 
Santa Anna requires paid butchers he will have to find a substitute 
for me. Mount gentlemen, and let's push on." Close shaving that. 
Finally the whole party were locked up in Perote's dungeon keep. 
Before they had well gotten their new quarters warm, objecting 
to the cold comfort they afforded, sixteen of the most resolute 
determined to vacate them and to reimigrate to Texas. To do this 
they had to cut through an eight foot wall composed of a volcanic 
rock harder than granite, and with most crude and indifferent 
utensils to work with. 

It was a conception sufficient to have appalled even Baron 
Trenck, whom all the State prisons of Prussia could not restrain. 
It required weeks and months of unremitting work to do it, but 
finally it was done ; and on the night of July 2nd, 1843, they 

cuse me General," was the saucy reply, " when I travel I generally select my 
company." The Colonel who was riding a high mettled thoroughbred, by 
courtesy of the captor, rode up to Dan shortly after the march was begun 
and told him in undertone that it was all important that Gen. Taylor 
should be advised that the enemy were concentrating in overwhelming 
force in that quarter. " Get me in your stirrups, Colonel, and I'll take it 
to him or die," was the prompt reply. This was effected on the plea that 
he, the Colonel, would like for one of his men to tone down his charger. Dan 
of course was the man selected. As soon as he was in the saddle he began 
to make the noble animal restive by a sly application of the spur, and then 
suddenly driving them both in to the rowels, he rode through and over 
half a dozen mustangs and their riders and though a thousand " escopitas " 
were emptied at him, he and his horse escaped without a scratch. Wav- 
ing his hat, he yelled back, " Adios Ampudia, tell old Peg Leg (Santa Anna) 
we'll give him hell." In briefest time possible the news was conveyed to 
" Old Zack." In recognition of the feat Congress voted the hero six 
thousand dollars and two thousand acres of land (if I'm correct as to quan- 
tity), and Dan lived upon it like a fighting cock for three whole months, 
and a little later on died in the Charity Hospital, true to the last to man's 
noblest instincts and to all of his host of friends, except — himself. 


crawled through the narrow aperture, which six months of starva- 
tion made easier for them, let themselves down hy means of a 
small rope to the bottom of the moat some twenty or thirty feet 
below, scaled the opposite side and a "chevaux de frise" beyond, 
and stood up free men once more, but carrying their lives in hand. 
Here they separated by preconcert into parties of two, Gen. Green 
and our old friend, Captain Dan Henrie, going together and strik- 
ing out for Vera Cruz. Eight of them after incalculable sufferings, 
hardships and hair-breadth escapes, including the two last named, 
got back to Texns. The other eight were recaptured. 

All of the special details, incidents and anecdotes connected 
with these splendid achievements, were graphically told by 
Gen. Green in "The Texian Expedition against Mier," an octavo 
volume of some 500 pages published by the Harpers in 1845, a 
work extensively sold and which many of your older readers will 
doubtless recall, now out of print. 

Shortly after his arrival home, he was returned to the Congress 
of Texas, where he was unremitting in his efforts to effect the 
release of his unfortunate comrades whom he left in Mexican dun- 
geons. This was finally effected some twelve months later on, after 
some half of their original number had paid the extreme penalty 
that cowardly tyranny can extort from Freedom's Champions when 
the opportunity offers. This imperfect tribute to their valor and 
endurance is being penned on the 49th Christmas anniversary of 
that wonderful fight. 

During his legislative service he introduced the bill making the 
Rio Grande the boundary line between the two contending coun- 
tries, which became a law, the " Nueces" being the extreme limit 
that Mexico would either directly or indirectly recognize. It was 
upon the basis of claim then set up, that President Polk after 
annexation ordered troops under General Taylor to the mouth of 
the first named river, which resulted in the battles of Palo Alto 
and Eesoca and the war ensuing. That the acquisition of the vas! 
and indispensable territory by the treaty of peace, was worth 
hundreds of times more to the IT. S. than the cost of the war 
amounted to, is now generally conceded. 

<)n tin- eve of annexation, be returned t<> the United States, and 


shortly after married the widow of John S. Ellery, of Boston, a 
lady of rare worth and manifold attractions. 

Four years later (1849) we find him journeying alone through 
Mexico, from "Vera Cruz to Acapulco on his way to California, 
which was just then looming into consequence by reason of large 
gold discoveries. After working in the mines for awhile he was 
elected to the first Senate and served out one term, being a promi- 
nent candidate for the U. S. Senate in the ensuing year. 

Whilst in that State he projected and laid out the towns of Oro 
and Vallejo, the last for awhile the recognized capital, and both 
now places of considerable repute. During his citizenship in Texas 
he in connection with Dr. Archer and the Whartons had purchased 
and laid out Yelasco at the mouth of the Brazos, now of recog- 
nized importance owing to recent deepening of water on the bars. 
During his sojourn in California he was made Major-General of her 
militia and sent with an adequate force to suppress Indian disturb- 
ances in the interior, which was done. But a greater work was 
the defeat of what was known as the "Divorce Bill " in that first 
legislature, which authorized absolute separation upon mutual 
request of man and wife. Unless mistaken, this infamous measure 
making marriage a practical nullity had passed the House and was 
about to be brought up in the Senate with every indication of an 
almost unanimous vote if taken on that day. At the time there 
being few women in the State, the far reaching and pernicious 
effects were not duly weighed and considered. Senators Green 
and McDougald (afterwards Governor and U. S. Senator), were 
amongst the very few in opposition to the measure; but they were 
earnest, and after exhausting all the devices of Parliamentary 
strategy possible, succeeded in postponing a vote, thereby defeat- 
ing the measure. 

During the same session he introduced and had passed a bill for 
the establishment of a State University, which has grown to be 
one of the most flourishing and best endowed schools on the con- 
tinent. That world renowned scholar, Professor David C. Gilman, 
was called from its presidency to fill the same position in the Johns 
Hopkins University, which he has done in a way to elicit the 
admiration and astonishment of the scholastic world. 

The reader will, I trust, pardon a personal reminiscence in this 


connection of the narative. Shortly after Mr. Polk's inaugration 
as President, Gen. Green returned to the United States, and taking 
me then a small boy with him, repaired to the Hermitage and 
passed the greater part of the day with his old and honored friend 
Ex-President Jackson. It was a visit ever to be remembered. 
Although but six short weeks intervened between that day and 
the one that saw him borne to the corner of his garden for inter- 
ment, his old time vigor of expression and enthusiasm seemed in 
no wise abated. The old hero had himself lifted out of bed and 
whilst sitting bolt upright in an easy chair entered warmly into 
conversation with his visitor upon the current topics of the da}-, 
upon men and upon horses. Upon the question of Texas annexa- 
tion he was especially interested. "Let me live to see it consu- 
mated," he said, "and I can truly say, let thy servant depart in 
peace." As we were leaving, he arose with an effort, and placing 
his hand upon my head gave me his blessing. 

Some four and forty years thereafter and almost to the day ante- 
dating dissolution, it was my singular good fortune to have been 
present at the death-bed, as it were, of another patriot hero, sage 
and statesman. Some six weeks before his death and by his invi- 
tation, I passed three or four days with Ex-President Davis in his 
quiet and lovely retreat of Beauvoir. It was indeed a personal 
privilege to have seen and heard those two immortal men at the 
same stage of their sunset. In grand heroic qualities they were of 
kindred type and cast in kindred mould. Self-reliant conviction 
and devotion to conviction pedcstalled on high principle, was the 
ruling trait of each. It was the ruling trait of Ca»sar, and in lesser 
degree of Cromwell, of Frederic and of Napoleon. Coupled with 
high genius, and the hero is the inevitable outcome. 

In those two old men I see, and methinks posterity will sec, the 
two most pronounced and Titanic figures of this country during the 
century. But a truce to digression, and return to our subject. 
That he was the friend of such and of Mr. Calhoun and Albert Sid- 
ney Johnston is a no mean letter of credit of itself. 

During the pending of annexation negotiations, he was tendered 
by Mr. Polk's administration the post of confidential agent in that 
matter, but declined on the ground that he was then a citizen of 
the other contracting power. Later on he was indirectly ottered 


by President Pierce another important diplomatic appointment, but 
again requested that his name might not be sent to the Senate. 

In his declining years he returned to his native county and set- 
tled on a plantation on Shocco creek known as " Esmeralda." and 
passed his remaining days in the cultivation of corn and tobacco, 
old friendships and old fashioned hospitality. He had long fore- 
seen and foretold as inevitable, the great political crisis which 
resulted in the clash of arms between the sections in 1861. Whilst 
devotedly attached to "the Union of the Constitution," neverthe- 
less when he saw the trend of events and could deduce therefrom 
but the one alternative of sectional domination or sectional asser- 
tion, he did not hesitate which to espouse. In fact he may be said 
to have been what few now are willing to confess themselves to 
have been, an " original Secessionist," a Secessionist per se. He 
reasoned that the solution of the dread question " by wager of bat- 
tle " was unavoidable, and each recurring census told him that the 
longer it was deferred the worst it would be for the assertive and 
weaker side. The unceasing regret of his latter days and hasten- 
ing cause of death was, that when the crisis came he was debarred 
by chronic disease (the gout) from taking part. He died as some 
have said from a broken heart, sequent upon a succession of disas- 
ters in 1863, including Gettysburg, Yicksburg, Port Hudson and 
operations incident to the two last. 

He died on the 12th of Dec, 1863, and was buried in his garden, 
whilst the writer was a prisoner of war on Johnson's Island. In 
manner he was suave and polite, although strangers might have 
thought him a li tie brusque. In form and feature one of the finest 
specimens of physical development of his age. Simple and straight- 
forward in his intercourse with all, he loathed duplicity and 
hypocricy in others. Had he made accumulation and money 
making the object of his life, he had died wealthy, for few ever 
had such opportunities. 

This poor notice of a marked historic figure and gallant gentle- 
man, cannot be more fittingly closed than by excerpt from oration 
of a gifted friend — Mr, Tasker Polk, of Warrenton : 

" Among all her illustirous sons of the past, there is not one at 
the shrine of whose memory Warren county bows with greater 
love and reverence than at that of General Thomas J. Green. He, 


generous to a fault, noble and grand, fiery and impulsive, heard 
the Texan cry for freeedom ; left a home of luxury ; sought the 
field where blood like water flowed ; unsheathed his sword in 
defense of a stranger's land, nor sheathed it till that land was freed. 
The cry of the oppressed reached his ears and was answered by 
his unselfish heart — that heart gave its first beat of life 'neath 
Warren's sky. Bravely and gallantly he fought — his blood stained 
the plains and broad praries of Texas; the cause for which he 
fought triumphed ; the ' Lone Star State ' was saved from Mexican 
persecution, and his cbivalric nature was satisfied. Years passed, 
but the memory of old Warren still remained fresh in his mind. 
He returned to spend the remainder of his illustrious life among 
his people; and many yet there are, who remember with pleasure, 
how 'Esmeralda's ' door, whether touched by the hands of rich 
or poor, ever swung upon the hinges of hospitality." 

Wharton J. Green. 


(near chapel hill.) 
[The visitor is supposed to meet an old darkey near a cabin just before 
reaching the hill.] 

Mighty po'ly, young Mars'r, thank de Lawd ! 
En times is mos'ly putty hawd; 
But Ise watched yere so long, it seems ter me 
'At dis is de place for my een' ter be. 

Yasser, — das de road — hit'll take you dar — 
By de grave er Mars Louis — en roun' ter whar 
You kin see thoo de clearin' de county road 
Wat goes ter Bawley. You nebber knowd 

Erbout dat grave on top er de hill? 
Jes wait, young Mars'r, ef you will, 
Twell I fas'n de do', ter keep de pigs out, 
En I'll show you wut I'm ertalkin' erbout. 

Yasser, — all dis hill's been a clearin' since den, 
Ever' tree tuk off by me en ol' Ben. 
Young Miss hed it done — ' so de sun could shine 
All day on de spot whar Mars Louis is lyin'. 

Hit do seem odd, but dat's jes wut she said 
De ver' nex' day arter he wus dead. 
Hit seem ter me — 'at her po' little brain 
Went sumut wrong wid all uv its pain ; 

En maybe de darkness in her min' 
Wus pressin' down lak de shade er de pine; 
En ter clear de shadder fum whar he res' 
Ud lif de weight fum off'n her bre's'. 

Dunno 'bout dat — but I love her so, 
I seem ter feel de grief wut grow 


En break her down in her sweet young days — 
Des lak 't'us mine, in ever' ways. 

Yasser — das de rock ; en dis is de place 
Mars Louis en de ter man, face ter face, 
Stood up in de moonlight en shoot at one ner, — 
Fer de sake er Miss Fannie — das wut fur. 

I wus puttin' de hosses en ca'aige away — 
Fer dat was de College Commencement Day, 
En our folks hed been ter de ball dat night — 
'Twas des lak day, de moone 'us so bright, — 

En w'iles I was foolin' aroun' in de lot, 

I heerd a voice, putty low, but hot, 

Say'n, "Damn him ! he strack me, en call me a houn',- 

En bofe on us shan't live above de groun' !" 

Dey wahn't in de big road, en so I know 
Dat sump'n' wus up, en I thought I'd go 
Thoo de bush en see wut de mischief gwinc — 
Mars Louis didn' cross my po' ole min'. 

Dey stop right yere, en wait, en den 
Yere come a talkin' two yuther men. 
One say, "Gib her dis, my frien', ef I go" — 
"Good God!" I say, "Mars Louis, sho!" 

I run ter de house — in front over dar 

Er my cabin — burnt down endurin' de war — 

En tole Miss Fannie, 'Ef she keer 

Per Mars Louis' life, fer ter huny up yere!' 

De blessed gal wus read}'' fur bed ; 
But she flung er big white shawl on her head, 
En jes in her ball-room slippers en gown, 
She followed me — skacely techin de groun'. 

But des os we come ter de tun er do hill, 
Do pistols fire; Miss Fannie stopt still. 


I look behin', en fo' God, I clar 

I never see nuthin' lak she wus thar! 

Her shawl hed dropt off, en her long black hair 
Wus loose — wid runnin', I reckon', en thar 
She stood — one han' on her heart, en de ter 
One erholdin' her temple — des like dis yer. 

En her eyes wus shut, en her putty head 
Was drapt on her bres', en er streak er red 
Wus tricklin down on her snow-white gown, 
Eight fum twixt her lips, clear down ter de groun'. 

Hit seem ter me lak she gwine ter fall, 

But 1 couldn' move; — I des sorter call, 

"Miss Fannie!" — she raise up her head, en her eyes 

Look hard up de road, like a pusson's wut dies. 

Den she sway a little fum side ter side, 

En hoi' out her han', des lak she tried 

Ter go, but couldn'. I put her shawl 

Aroun' her, en start ter go back, — but she call 

Out easy-like en sad to hear — 

" To Louis — take me ter him ! " — en yere 

I fotch her in my arms — de red 

Blood tricklin' all de time. " He's dead ! " 

De gent'mens say des es we got yere ; 
En I felt Miss Fannie shake mighty queer 
En she slid fum my arms en stood up stiff — 
Like a blood-stained ghos' wut make yer hair lif '. 

De gent'mens move back fum de awful place, 
En dar wus Mars Louis — de moon in his face. 
Young Miss never move, en she ain't say a word, 
Des a big long sigh wus all I heard. 

She look at de co'pse a while, en den 

She tu'n her eyes on de three young men ; 


She ain't say a word, but one on 'em come 
En kneel at her feet — lak dey bofe wus dum'. 

He look in her face, en she look in his; 
He hoi' up his han's, up todes her — lak dis; 
Den young Miss p'int wid her long white han' 
Ter de face er Mars Louis : de man un'erstan', 

En he hang his head lak he wan' ter confess 
En ax fer mercy : Young Mistis des, 
Wid her yuther han' — all red with blood — 
Pint back, she did, down de village road, 

En de young man riz en walked away — 
En we ain't hearn tell uv him since dat day. 
My Tildy came up fum de house jes den, 
En we ca'aied young Mistis back ag'in. 

Arter dat, hit seem lak she drif away — 
Not die — des driftin', day after day — 
Ter whar her lover hed gone befo', 
En er gittin' silent, mo' en mo'. 

She'd go ter de spring jes back er de hill, 
En look in de water — a smilin' still, 
Des lak w'en she hear Mars Louis say 
He love her, befo' dat awful day. 

Den she sigh, en come ter de rock down yan, 
Whar he uster set en hoi' her han' ; 
En she blush, er scttin' dar all alone, 
Des lak ho kiss her — en he dead 'n gone. 

Den she wander dar ter de eastern brow 
Er do hill, whar de clearin' is, en 'low, 
" He's comin', he's comin', he'll soon be yere ! " 
Erwatchin' do road whar ho uster 'pear. 

But ho ain't never come — he wus yere in de groun', 
Wid dat hole in his breV, whar the blood trickle down 


En she seem not ter know, jes only she'd wait 
Fer de lover wut never uster come late. 

En my ol' eyes, w'ile I watch her yere, 
Ud fill en blin' wid many a tear. 
By 'n by, she got too weak fer ter go 
Ter de places her lover en her love so; 

En she set at de winder wut look dis way, 
En wait fer Mars Louis ter come all day. 
At las' she say, wid a sweet low tone, 
" I'll go ter him — he is sad alone." 

En das de way Miss Fannie went, 
One evenin' w'en de day wus spent. 
She's buied yere 'long by de man she love, 
En I prays ter God dey're together above. 

Oh, thankee, Mars'r!— Wut?— Well, I'se black, 
En ol', en po' — but, no, sah ! — take back 
Yer silver — de son er de man wut kill 
My Mistis shan't never my pocket fill. 

L. B. Hamberlin. 
Chapel Hill, N. O, February, 1892. 


Dr. Kemp P. Battle, at our request, furnishes us some sketches of 
men who figured in our Colonial Days. They are a small part of 
an address delivered by him in Tarboro in 1889, which will soon 
be published in book form, together with other addresses relating 
to the history of the State, by the DcRossets, of Wilmington. 


The successor of Governor Hyde, who as President of the Coun- 
cil, assumed the duties of chief executive, in 1712, was one of the 
most conspicuous men in our early annals, Major-General Thomas 
Pollock. He was born in Glasgow in 1654 and emigrated io Albe- 
marle as the deputy of Lord Carteret in 1684. He came from an 
ancient family, whose heir owned the estate of Balgric contigu- 
ously from the reign of James III of Scotland. In the Colonial 
Records is an interesting letter from him to Sir Robert Pollock, 
written five years before his death, stating that he had been pre- 
vented from revisiting his native land by the troubles in Albe- 
marle and the Indian wars. He was a member of the Council 
until his death in 1722. Ho was twice its President and acting 
Governor, first during the stormy times of the Tuscarora war from 
the death of Hyde to the coming of Eden and secondly for a 
short time after the death of Eden. His management seems to 
have been energetic and prudent. From his letter book we get 
glimpses of the horrors of the time. The terrors of the Indian foe 
paralyzed the labors of the farmers outside of Albemarle. There 
was great difficulty in feeding the troops from South Carolina who 
came to suppress the insurrection. Pollock complains that Col. 
Moore's Indians consumed the corn and the cattle so that the peo- 
ple were as ready to rise against them as against the enemy. He 
himself lost during the contest as much as £2500, besides £682 
lent DeGraffenrcid, who left the Province in his debt. The war 
tax was £5 on every titheable (i. e .. white males l(i years old and 
upwards, slaves of both sexes 12 years old and over), and in a<l«li- 


tion 6 bushels of corn and 25 per cent, of all the wheat from each 
family. He has given his testimony that while the Quakers would 
not fight they paid their taxes cheerfully. 

Pollock was a warm supporter of Glover and Eden and at one 
time took refuge in Virginia to escape the wrath of Cary. In his 
private affairs he possessed in full share the thrift of the canny 
Scotchman. Thousands of acres of the richest land of the east 
went into his possession and many slaves, both negroes and 
Indians. The old records prove that many of the light colored 
negroes of our time are descendants of Indian slaves. In advanc- 
ing money to DeGraffenreid he was careful to take a mortgage on 
the lands bought by him for the Swiss and Palatine colonists 
and these lands on foreclosure went into the hands of his 
heirs, for which loss, however, by Tryon's kindly influence they 
received compensation out of crown lands in the interior. He was 
the pioneer of the town builders and land improvement companies 
of our day, in laying out and settling lots in the town of Edenton, 
i an acre for 20 shillings, with the privilege of clearing and culti- 
vating 3 acres of wood land. 

Pollock was a generous supporter of religious efforts, being prom- 
inent as an officer of his church. On the first subscription paper 
I find in North Carolina for the support of a minister, the pioneer 
of an unending line of similar documents, his name is first and 
opposite to the largest sum, £5, the only subscriber equalling him 
being the prosperous lawyer, Edward Mosely. 

In the letter to his kinsman, already mentioned, Governor Pol- 
lock spoke with pardonable pride of his three hopeful pons, Cullen, 
George and Thomas. Of these Thomas and Cullen became fre- 
quently members of the Council, after acting as assistant judges 
in the General Court. Thomas Pollock, the younger, was appointed 
Chief Justice by Governor Burrington during the absence of Chief 
Justice Gale in England. He left three sons, Thomas, Cullen and 
George. This third, Thomas Pollock, married in New Jersey 
Eunice, a daughter of the celebrated Jonathan Edwards, and from 
this union was Frances, the wife of John Devereux, who became 
the mother of the late Thomas Pollock Devereux, and of Prances, 
the wife of the late Bishop Leonidas Polk. The last survivor of the 


name was George Pollock, of Halifax county, who was killed by a 
fall from his horse in 1839. 


The Governor, who succeeded Hyde, was of a good English fam- 
ily, one of whom afterwards became Lord Auckland, Charles Eden. 
He assumed the duties of his office in May 1714, and died in 1722. 
Opinions differ as to his character, his enemies charging him with 
complicity with Blackboard, the Pirate, and with injustice to 
Mosely, the leader of the people's party. The first charge is sup- 
ported by no tangible evidence, though it is impossible to acquit 
Chief Justice Tobias Knight, who married Governor Glover's 
widow, of receiving Blackboard's stolen goods except on the 
ground that he thought they were only smuggled. As to the 
second charge Eden must be judged from the standpoint of his 
times. As Hawks, Wheeler, &c, have this matter all wrong I will 
explain it as the records show. 

The facts were that Col. Maurice Moore, then of Perquimans, 
Mosely and others, of the party opposed to Eden, suspected him of 
complicity with the pirates and believed that such complicity 
could be proved from the Council records. They claimed that 
under the law these records were open to the public and being 
denied access to them they broke open the office in which they 
were kept and spent some hours in inspecting them. For this 
they were criminally prosecuted. When the officer arrested 
Mosely, in the heat of anger he indulged in violent language, 
accusing the Governor of acting illegally and despotically, and 
threatening to blacken his character. For this alleged seditious 
language he was indicted, fined £100 and declared incapable of 
holding office for three years. Hawks and others say this punish- 
ment was for breaking open the public office, but they are mis- 
taken, for that trespass Mosely was fined only one shilling and 
Moore £5. 

Accustomed as we are to boundless ferocity in the criticism 
of public men, the punishment of Mosely for angry words reflect- 
ing on the Governor, seems to us harsh and tyrannical, but in 
Eden's time the views especially of those in authority were very 
different. In Queen Elizabeth's reign poor Stubbs waved the 
bloody stump of the right arm from which his hand had been 


struck by a cleaver, for saying that the Queen was too old to get 
married, and cried God save the Queen. Scandalum magnatum, was 
most severely punished as late as the beginning of the present 
century in England and America. The imprisonment and perse- 
cution of the seven Bishops for presenting to James II, about 25 
years before Mosely's offense, a respectful petition, and the prosecu- 
tionsand convictions under the Sedition Law of John Adams' admin- 
istration, are cases in point. We must admit that Eden showed 
courage in grappling with so powerful a leader as Mosely, though 
we disapprove his action. He showed vigor in pushing the survey 
of the Virginia boundary line, and was thanked by the General 
Assembly of South Carolina for prompt and effective assistance in 
their contest with the Yemassees. 

As to his religious character the testimony is favorable. Rev. 
John Urmstone, who was a chronic grumbler and reviler, calls 
him " an honest gentleman." " Our new Governor," he writes, 
"seems resolved to promote the church discipline by being a strict 
observer himself." Eden had what was rare among the Proprie- 
tary Governors, a kindly feeling towards the people. "They are 
as willing," he says, "as any people on the continent to pay pro- 
vided ministers are of good lives and affable behavior and conversa- 
tion." He urges the sending of ministers and teachers. " In their 
absence," he writes, " lay-readers are paid as high as £30 per year 
— a larger sum than appears at first sight, because of the low price 
of farm products." Wheat, for example, brought only six pence a 
bushel in English goods. 

Eden showed his kindly temper too, by taking the part of the 
people in their claim to pay quit-rents in commodities, instead of 
sterling money, but he was ruled over by the Proprietor's. In his last 
days his mind must have been weakened, for John Lovich offered 
witnesses to prove that he had made him his legatee and the Coun- 
cil believing the story gave him the executorship. 

The will was contested by his sister, wife of Rev. Wm. Lloyd, of 
London, possibly for his daughter, but the records do not show 
this fact, nor the result of the litigation. At any rate his lands 
seem to have descended to his daughter, who became the wife of 
Governor Gabriel Johnston. They resided at Eden House on Sal- 
mon creek in Bertie county, and their daughter became the wife of 


a lawyer from Virginia, named Wm. Dawson. A son of theirs, 
Wm. Johnston Dawson, became a prominent man: a member of 
Congress, and one of the commissioners to locate the capital, his 
name thus being affixed to one of the streets of Ealeigh. 

The fact that Eden's sister, instead of his daughter, should have 
contested the will, makes some doubt whether there was such 
daughter. I have been unable to find any explanation of this his- 
torical puzzle. 


The successor of Eden after a short interval, was George Bur- 
rington, of a good family in Devonshire, twice Governor, once by 
appointment of the Lords Proprietors, and afterwards of the King, 
was what might be called a double man. He had a strong mind 
and tireless energy, both in private and public affairs. He under- 
went terrible hardships in acquainting himself by personal visits 
with his province. His official papers show that he studied the inter- 
ests of the people with intelligence and was sagacious in devising 
means for advancing them. He was practically a friend of the 
church and a warm advocate of its extension. In theor}', though 
not in practice, he was a church-member. The Province prospered 
under his administration and many of the people bestowed 
unstinted praises on him. 

On the other hand he was excessively despotic and impatient of 
contradiction. All who opposed his will, in small as well as great 
matters, he hated with extreme virulence, and his hatred found 
expression in opprobrious epithets and personal violence. His 
most trusted officers as soon as they ceased to follow his arbitrary 
lead were at once transformed, to use his own words, into " liars," 
"perfidious scoundrels," " egregious sots," "silly boys," "guilty of 
innumerable villianies." " infamous characters," " would bo assas- 
sins." He led a midnight attack on Chief Justice Gale, threatened 
to slit his nose, crop his ears, reviled and insulted him in open 
court. When Everard became his successor, he assaulted the Gov- 
ernor's house, swore he was a noodle, an ape, no more fit to bo 
Governor than a hog in the woods, no more fit than Sancho Panza 
— dared him to como out and fight, offering benignly to scalp his 
thick skull. Ho attacked the house of the marshal, broke open 
that of the collector and beat a constable. And when indicted for 


these offences, he resolutely defied the law and was never even put 
on trial. 

His father distinguished himself in behalf of the Hanoverian 
dynasty, and the extraordinarj' - courage and loyalty of the parent 
accounts for the preferment of the son, at a time when the memory 
of the rebellion of 1715 was fresh in the minds of the statesmen of 
George II. The records show that the old story about his being 
killed while brawling in London cannot be true as he was found 
in North Carolina at a ripe old age in 1754 and as Col. Saunders 
shows must have died not long before 1759. 


probably from Tipperary, Ireland, as there were Baronets of that 
name there residing not many years before 1725 when he became 
Governor of North Carolina by appointment of the Lords Proprie- 
tors, was no improvement on Burrington. He had less ability, less 
energy and spirit of improvement. On the other hand his brawling 
was on a smaller scale. He was evidently much given to convivial 
habits. I suppose no Governor in ancient or modern times ever 
procured from his Council, as he did, in order to rebut the charge 
of habitual intoxication, a certificate that they had never seen him 
publicly drunk. Another charge against him was of clandestine 
questioning by him and his lady of the servants of those whom he 
suspected of enmity towards him, thus imitating the example of 
the Roman emperors in the employment of delatores. He showed 
some activity in procuring missionaries to the Colony, but it 
must be admitted that his adversary, Burrington, slandered the 
Governor of Barataria, when he placed Bverard and Don Quixote's 
faithful esquire on the same level* 

*Note. — Since the delivery of this address I find in Bishop Meade's " Old 
Churches and Families in Virginia," that Everard's daughter married 
Andrew Meade, of Virginia. Their son, Kichard, was one of Washington's 
trusty aids-de-camp, and he was the father of Bishop Meade. The old 
Governor must have had noble qualities in order to have been the ancestor 
of such excellent men. K. P. B. 



(pronounced, I think, Ro-an), whose name belongs to a county 
once stretching from about the longitude of High Point to the 
Mississippi river, for nearly two years, by virtue of his office of 
President of the Council, acted as Governor. He was alwaj-s 
faithful and trustworthy. He was a member of the Council from 
1732 until 1760 and for seven years its President. He showed 
activity and wisdom in the performance of his private and public 
duties. He was the son of a clergyman of the church, Rev. 
Andrew Rowan, of an old Scotch family, rector of Dunaghy, dio- 
cese of Connor, County Antrim, of Ireland. 

He settled as a merchant in Bath and was one of the church 
wardens in 1726. He represented his county (then called precinct) 
in the Assembly. He was an importer of Irish goods and as such 
often crossed the ocean to his native coutry. He was for awhile 
Surveyor-General of the Province and as such assisted in 1735 in 
making the boundary line between North and South Carolina. 
He became before his death an inhabitant of New Hanover county. 
As he seems not to have been involved in the bitter quarrels so 
prevalent during his long official career, and as we find no censure 
of him by the people or Board of Trade, and, although one of 
nine children of an Irish clergyman, as he accumulated a handsome 
estate and left legacies to three of his brothers in Ireland, it is 
clear that he was a good specimen of the level-headed and good- 
hearted, sagacious and energetic, cautious and wide-awake Scotch- 
Irish. The sense of justice which led to the provision in his will 
for an illegitimate child reveals the only obliquity in his conduct 
of which we have any knowledge. 


of Perquimans, was one of the most influential and honored of the 
early colonists, of large earthly possessions, and eminent for energy 
and usefulness. 

There is an ancient family of Swanns, who have owned landed 
property in the county of Derby, in England, ever since the Con- 
quest. A Samuel Swann was founder of one of its branches. I 
conjecture that the founder of the North Carolina family was a 
scion of that in Derby. 

Samuel Swann settled in Perquimans county in the year 1694 


His grandfather, Wm. Swann, was an Alderman of Jamestown, 
in Virginia, and bought the land called Swann's Point opposite, on 
the south side of James river, in 1635. His father, Thomas Swann, 
was a member of the Governor's Council in Virginia, and was mar- 
ried five times. Samuel was a son of his second wife, Sarah Cod, 
and was born in 1653. 

Samuel Swann was twice married, first to Sarah, daughter of 
Governor Wm. Druramond, and secondly to Elizabeth, daughter of 
acting Governor Alexander Lillington. He held several important 
offices, was often Associate Justice of the General Court, and some- 
times acted as Chief Justice. He was for many years a member of 
the Council. He held the responsible post of Collector of the cus- 
toms for Roanoke. He was the leading supporter of the church of 
England in Perquimans. Eev. Mr. Gordon, after praising the neat- 
ness of the unfinished church, states that its completion was hin- 
dered by the death in 1707 of Major Swann, who " zealously promo- 
ted the interests of religion in general and forwarded by his contin- 
ual pain and expense the building of that church in particular." 
There is a family record written by him, a copy of which was fur- 
nished me by one of his ablest and most useful descendants, Samuel 
A. Ashe, of Paleigh, which breathes throughout the spirit of piety 
and affection. One or two of the entries I note for the edification 
of parents who have need to make occasional memoranda of simi- 
lar character. 

" Samuel, born the 31st of October, 1704, being Tuesday, at 1 
o'clock in the afternoon, the moon being full at 12 o'clock, was 
baptized Thursday the 23rd of August 1705." 

He had an older son of the same name by his Drummond wife, 
concerning whom we find this tragic entry: ; ' My dearly beloved 
son, Samuel Swann, was drowned at Poanoke Inlet, his boat over- 
setting, on Friday the 1st of May, 1702, in the dusk of the evening, 
who, had he lived until the next morning, six o'clock, would have 
been 21 years of age." 

This brings to our mind the like fate of two noble young sons of 
the University in our day, who both bore promise of future great- 
ness in Church and State, Prank Hines and Charles U. Hill. 

The descendants of Samuel Swann have been in all generations, 
and are now, as a rule excellent people, influential in public or 


private stations, and many of them distinguished. His sons, Wil- 
liam and Thomas, by his Drummond wife, were both Speakers of 
the Assembly and Thomas was likewise a member of the Council. 
The last of the descendants of the Drummond wife was Thomas 
Swann, a member of Congress of the Confederacy in 1787, a man 
of unusual cultivation, who married a daughter of Governor Sam- 
uel Johnston, and died young without issue. Samuel Swann, the 
son of the Lillington wife, was a very eminent lawyer and legis- 
lator. He was selected as one of the commissioners to compile 
the laws of the Province, and as he finished the work, it is called 
Swann's Eevisal. He was for twenty years Speaker of the Assem- 
bly and opposed with ability and firmness the exertion of arbitrary 
power on the part of the Governor. He was one of the commis- 
sioners to run the boundary line between North Carolina and Vir- 
ginia, and the first white man to cross the great Dismal Swamp. 

Through his sons and his daughter, Elizabeth, wife of John Bap- 
tista Ashe, and another daughter, Sarah, wife of Thomas Jones, a 
lawyer of the Cape Fear section, are descended such prominent 
families as the Ashes, Swanns, Lords, Cutlars, Davises, DeEossetts, 
Wrights, Halls of Georgia, and others. 


was a man of great influence, at one time sharing with Edward 
Mosely the distinction of being the strongest man in the province. 
He was the first son of Governor James Moore, of South Carolina, 
whose ancestors belonged to one of the oldest and most eminent 
families of Ireland, of which the Marquis of Drogheda is the pres- 
ent head. His grandfather, Roger Moore, is mentioned by Hume, 
as a man of great capacity who was forced to fly from his country 
in consequence of an unsuccessful rebellion in 1G41 against the 
English. The mother of Maurice Moore was a daughter of Gover- 
nor Yeamans. He first came to North Carolina as an officer under 
his elder brother, Col. James Moore, who with signal ability fin- 
ished Col. Barnwell's work by crushing the Tuscarora rebellion, 
and was afterwards one of the best of South Carolina's Governors. 
Col. Maurice Moore married the widow of Samuel Swann. the elder. 
Governor Lillington's daughter, and for several years resided in 
Perquimans county. While dwelling there, he led under orders of 

Governor BSden, a company to defend the people of South Carolina 


against the Yemassee Indians, for which the Assembly of that 
State voted him most cordial thanks and a bounty of £100. About 
1723 he with his brother Nathaniel and Roger, commonly called 
King Roger Moore, and other relatives and friends, such as the 
Porters, Howes, Daniels, and the children of John Moore, concluded 
to emigrate to the Cape Fear, and purchasing large tracts of land 
on the waters of Town creek below Wilmington, laid out and set- 
tled the town of Brunswick. This town for many years was inhab- 
ited by distinguished and refined people. The Assemblies were 
sometimes held there. In it Governor Dobbs lived and for awhile 
Governor Tryon. In the course of time Wilmington absorbed the 
population of Brunswick. 

As the settlement of his ancestor, Sir John Yeamans, had failed, 
Col. Maurice Moore is entitled to the distinction of being the pio- 
neer ot the Cape Fear. Owning large estates and possessed of 
great weight of character he and his brothers dispensed a gener- 
ous hospitality, and exerted commanding influence in their com- 

His sons, Maurice and James, one in civil and the other in mili- 
tary life, were among our most distinguished men. 

Maurice was an Associate Judge of the General Court under 
Tryon, along with Richard Henderson. He was an able lawyer 
and a staunch advocate of the rights of the people. His pamphlets, 
one against the Stamp Act, and the other signed " Atticus," criti- 
cising the acts and character of Tryon, show much literary power. 
In him alone of the three judges did the Regulators appear to 
trust. He was a member of the Congress which formed our State 
constitution and aided to start the machinery of free government. 

James Moore had high reputation as a military man and was 
elected in 1775 Colonel of the first regiment and in 1776 as Gen- 
eral, was placed by Congress in charge of the Southern depart- 
ment. He lived long enough to show the promise of a brilliant 
career. In the same house and in the same hour in 1777 the 
struggling patriots lost two of their strongest men : Maurice Moore, 
the civilian, and James Moore, the soldier. 

Alfred, a son of Judge Maurice Moore, after some efficient service 
in the war, became Attorney-General of free North Carolina, and 
at the close of the century a Judge of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 



was the most imposing figure in the early judiciary. We have his 
portrait — his noble countenance, surrounded by his flowing wig, 
showing true judicial dignity. We learn even from his enemy 
Urmstone that he was so much trusted that he was called on to 
fill every office in the Province except the executive. Under his 
administration as Chief Justice the General Court for the first time 
took shape as a worthy imitation of the Court of the King's Bench 
in England. So far as the records prove he was the first judge to 
deliver a charge to the grand jury, instructing them in their duties 
and the first to hold court in a court house, which was at Edenton. 
He was equal to Mosely in the universality of his employments: 
Major in the militia, Councillor, Commissioner to settle the Vir- 
ginia boundary line, Commissioner to procure aid from South Car- 
olina in the Tuscarora war, Collector, Agent to England to procure 
the deposition of the terrible Burrington. Burrington praised 
him until he refused to allow his court to be made the instrument 
of the Governor's despotic conduct and then the praises were 
changed into curses and vilification, followed by attempts at per- 
sonal violence. The Lords Proprietors sustained Gale. He was 
Chief Justice, with a short interval when he was absent in England, 
until 1731. 

He stands higher for piety and zeal than any other of the men 
of his day. He was a son of Rev. Miles Gales, rector of Kighley 
in Yorkshire. His letters to his father and to the Bishop of Lon- 
don show an earnest desire to procure missionaries for the people 
so destitute of religious privileges. 


A most notable soldier of the period nearest the Revolutionary 
struggle was General Hugh Wadded, the founder of an extensive 
family, of great influence in our State, one of whom, Alfred Moore 
Waddell, has recently published an interesting biography of his 
ancestor. His father of the same name belonged to a leading fam- 
ily of the great people who emigrated from lowland Scotland to 
North Ireland, and was a friend of Rowan and of Dobbs. lliiirli 
Waddell, the younger, emigrated to North Carolina in 1754 when 
about twenty years of age. He won laurels when barely of age in 
the campaigns in which Washington gained his first military expc- 


rience, being promoted from Lieutenant to Captain. As Major he 
marched with General Forbes to Fort Du Quesne. In the next 
year, 1759, we find him protecting the North Carolina frontiers 
against the Indians by building forts and fighting when need 

Two years later in command of the North Carolina troops he 
assisted in humbling the Cherokees. In 1765 he joined with John 
Ashe in leading forcible resistance to the execution of the Stamp 
Act. He took part in the campaign against the Eegulators, being 
in command of the militia of the West. Gen. Waddell was inter- 
ested in civil as well as military affairs, serving as a member of 
the Assembly from Rowan and from Bladen. 

Marrying Mary Haynes, he settled on Cape Fear river at Rocky 
Point, at a plantation then and now called Castle Haynes. Hav- 
ing great military talents and experience, being of indomitable 
pluck and energy, possessed of large wealth, a big brain, com- 
manding manners and inpetuous zeal for liberty, he seemed des- 
tined to stand high on the roll of the great Generals, who justified 
the confidence reposed in them by Washington. He was cut off 
by disease two years before blood flowed at Concord and Lexing- 
ton and before his kinsman and friends began to arm in prepara- 
tion for the coming conflict. 

It is remarkable that North Carolina should have. lost by disease 
in the opening days of the Revolutionary struggle, two of her most 
eminent military leaders, James Moore and Waddell, and also her 
most trusted statesman, John Harvey. 


— We esteem it quite a good fortune that we are to have with us at Com- 
mencement two such distinguished gentlemen as Senator John G. Carlisle 
and Hon. Alfred M. Waddell. The latter gentleman will deliver an 
address on the life and character of Col. Wm. L. Saunders, who was such a 
warm friend of the University, and to whose untiring zeal and invincible 
patriotism the " Colonial Records " stand as imperishable monuments. 

Of course we do not know what will be the subject of Senator Carlisle's 
oration, but there may be no fear but that the "best-posted statesman in 
the Democratic party " will deliver an oration worthy of himself and his 
very enviable reputation. We hope that a great many of the alumni will 
be present on this occasion, and we recommend to the young alumni the 
example of Col. Steele and others, who always came to the Commence- 
ment and showed great interest in the welfare of the University and of the 

— In one of his short talks to the students at prayers, President Win- 
ston recently said that there were three problems for the administration 
of the University : 1st, that of discipline : 2nd, that of patronage ; and 3rd, 
that of endowments and of establishing new chairs. We would like to 
call the attention of the alumni and friends of the University to these 
problems. The first has been almost settled by the President and the 
students. Noise, idling and playing in and about the buildings have 
almost ceased and old students will be surprised to learn that now the 
South Building, during hours for study, is as quiet as a church. This is 
not a sudden change, but it is the result of a gradual, almost imperceptible 
change that has been going on for the past four or five years. Hazing and 
even the mildest freshing have passed away so completely that the time- 
honored exercises on the afternoon of the birthday of Washington were a 
complete failure this year. A decidedly healthy tone pervades the Univer- 
sity and this has been brought about by the co-operation of the President 
and students. The oft-heard charges that the student-body at Chapel 
Hill is immoral and vicious, can only come from ignorant opponents of the 
University or from opponents who do not care to be otherwise than igno- 
rant. We can assure our friends that while the angelic wings have not yet 
begun to sprout on some of us, the discipline of the University is what any 
one might export to find among gentlemen. 

This most important problem being Bettled satisfactorily, there remain 


the two latter. In the settlement of these there will be a hearty co-opera- 
tion between faculty and students. The two controlling forces at the Uni- 
versity will work together, there will be no diffusion of energy. But right 
here, is the point at which the alumni can help us — to increase the patron- 
age and enlarge the number of chairs. The existence of the University is 
due to the active energy of the alumni, and we look with a reasonable 
hope for their aid and encouragement in extending it. 

— Under the supervision of Dr. Alexander, Chairman of the Library 
Committees, an excellent catalogue of the duplicate books of the library 
has just been issued. These books are in many cases as good as new and 
are offered for sale only because we have the duplicates. Many of them 
are out of print and are very valuable. Judging from the orders that have 
come in so far, there will be no difficulty in selling them, and those who 
desire books would do well to send in their orders early. A catalogue, 
giving the price, edition and condition of each book may be had upon 
application to the librarian. 

— As Commencement approaches the Senior's heart grows sad and joyful, 
hopeful and despondent. Sad, because he must soon leave friends and 
places endeared to him by a long and happy acquaintance, of four years 
full of pleasure and pleasant recollections. Joyful, because he will in a few 
weeks receive his well-earned diploma and begin life in the world for him- 
self. For four years he has been longing to begin the great battle of life a 
foretaste of which his college-life has given him, and now he finds himself 
almost at the starting point. We trust that each young man who leaves 
his Alma Mater in June will always remember that the State of North Car- 
olina has given him most of his education and that he owes to her a debt 
which a useful, well-spent life can only discharge. 

Comments. — There has been much improvement in our little village 
during the past year and many handsome residences have been erected 
and several older ones have been repaired and beautified. 

— The annual village election is approaching and there are many who 
chose to be first in Chapel Hill rather than second in Raleigh. 

— The Hellenian which has become a woll established feature of college 
life is in press and will soon be out. Orders should be sent to Mr. Craw- 
ford Biggs, Editor-in-Chief. 

— No town in the State has a more efficient or obliging postmaster than 
Chapel Hill. Mr. Kirkland and his very polite assistant, Mr. Mason, fill 
their positions very satisfactorily to the community and make excellent 


— What is going on in the college world? Read almost any of our rep- 
resentative Exchanges and you will find that the College World just now 
is absorbed mainly in athletics, class-day and preparation for commence- 
ment. The representative college paper, ever true to its mission, reflects 
the spirit of the college, and is, therefore, necessarily surcharged with base- 
ball, tennis tournaments, field day, &c. If we are to judge by the promi- 
nence given to these topics by our Southern Magazines more importance 
is being given to college athletics this year than ever before. In the South 
especially foot-ball has given way to base-ball which has a better claim on 
our warm spring weather It is interesting to note how many colleges 
have "a better team than ever before" and how many are " sure of over- 
whelming victories," or how " never in history of the college has the inter- 
est in athletics been so great." Numerous editorials will doubtless appear 
next month on the " Value of Defeat," &c, but no space is given to such a 
topic now. Again some of our editors are commenting upon the interest 
in class-day, writing long editorials upon its usefulness, and looking for- 
ward with eagerness for its approach, but some take on a melancholy 
strain and lament that the good old custom of class-day has been abol- 
ished. Orators, debaters, &c, are being chosen for commencement and all 
the preparation necessary for the interesting occasion is being made. 

— The best college boat race this spring will probably be that between 
Cornell and the University of Pennsylvania, at Poughkeepsie on the Hud- 
son. — Harvard Crimson. 

— A movement is on foot for the formation of a base-ball league between 
Cornell, University of Michigan, and University of Toronto. — Ex. 

— Harvard loses but one man from last year's base-ball team, while 
Princeton loses four. — Ex. 

— Two thousand five hundred dollars has so far been raised by the 
Undergraduates of Princeton toward the Brokaw Memorial Athlotio field. 
— Ex. 

— The annual eight-oared race between Oxford and Cambridge will bo 
rowed April 9th. — Ex. 

— A new Harvard song book has just been issued by Oliver Ditson Co. 
It contains 35 songs, among which will be found nearly all the most popu- 
Inr of thoso sung by the Glee Club in the last three years, — /'< 


— President Harper, of the new Chicago University which is to open this 
next September, is but thirty-six. He receives $10,000 a year, and has 
almost unlimited power in the creation of his University. The University 
itself has a magnificent endowment, second only to Stanford, and expects 
to open with 800 students. — Ex. 

— The University of Michigan base-ball team will make an eastern trip 
during the coming season. Among their dates are University of Pennsyl- 
vania, May 21; Princeton, May 25 ; Harvard, May 30 ; and Yale, June 1. 
They will also play Johns Hopkins, Lafayette, Fordham, Wesley an, Brown, 
Hamilton, and Cornell. — Free Lance. 

— A Union College Scheme. — Arrangements have been made at Union 
to endow a chair in some practical " every-day " subject. The scheme is 
to have a course of lectures throughout the College year delivered to the 
whole body of students. The lecturers will be men at the head of their 
various professions, and will include prominent lawyers, merchants, jour- 
nalists and others. Among the prominent men who will lecture are Ex- 
President Cleveland, Governor McKinley, Chauncey M. Depew, and 
Andrew D. White. — Amherst Student. 


The sunlight falls on stuffed foot-balls. 

And 'sanguined 'levens fierce and glory ; 
The long light shakes o'er frauds and fakes 
And undergraduates howl for glory. 
Kick, cullies, kick, 

Send the big sphere flying ; 
Answer cripples, 

Dying, dying, Dying — Exchange. 


Alcibiades : — "Can'st tell, good Fagan, why this theory 
Scientists call " motion perpetual " 
So much resembles him they call the tramp ?" 

Fagan : — " Hold now a trice ; I'll tell the presently. — 
Ha ! now methinks I have it. 'Tis because 
It moves, nor ever ceases, am I right?" 

Alcibiades : — " Nay, nay, my friend, not quite. Though of a truth, 
In that respect it doth resemble him, 
But it appears to me they're nearer kin 
In this, — that neither of them e'er will work !" — The Owl. 


— Base-ball ! Base-ball ! ! Base-ball ! ! ! 

— " Have you made all your engagements ?" 

— Another set of examinations gone. 

— The course of the Senior is nearly run. 

— Guilford College vs. University on our grounds, April 16th ; Oak Ridge 
vs. University, April 22nd. 

— It pains us to know that Pete Winborne is quite sick at his home near 
Edenton. We wish for him a speedy recovery. 

— Commencement day has been changed to the first Wednesday in June, 
and Alumni day moved up to Tuesday. A good idea. 

— A chair of Political and Social Science is to be added next year, with 
President Winston in charge. The University is booming ! 

—Senator John G. Carlisle, Col. A. M. Waddell, Pres. C. D. Mclver and 
Rev. Dr. J. W.Carter will draw a large crowd Commencement. 

— In answer to Dr. Hume's question on examination, asking for the ety- 
mology of remorse, a bright freshman answered : " It is made up of two 
Latin words, re, a thing, and mors, death, — a thing of death.'' He passed. 

— The Fresh class have met and elected the following officers : C. R. 
Turner, President ; H. H. Home, 1st V. Pres.; McAlister, 2nd V. Pres.; 
Howell, Historian ; V. A. Batchelor, Orator; Brogden, Prophet ; J. 0. Carr, 
Poet ; Kimball, Secretary ; Alexander, Essayist. 

— The next inter-society debate will be held in the Phi. Hall, Saturday 
evening, May 7th. In place of H. R. Ferguson who has resigned, R. H. 
Hayes has been chosen by the Di. society to represent them on that 0008s 

— Van N. (examining some pictures of Latin masks in Prof. Harring- 
ton's recitation room) — ''Professor, did these masks always have their 
mouth open ?'' 

Prof. H. — " Yes, sir, very much like a great many other things 1 know.'' 

Mr. Van N. asks no more questions. 


— The Durham Academy of Music, assisted by the University Glee Club, 
gave an entertainment in Gerrard Hall, Thursday evening, March 31st, for 
the benefit of the King's Daughters of Chapel Hill. The concert was a 
decided success, and those who did not attend missed a treat. 

— Several delegates from the University Y. M. C. A. attended the recent 
State Convention at Greensboro, and report one of the best Conventions 
ever held. The results of the work during the past year are especially 
gratifying, and the outlook for the coming year is very promising, particu- 
larly among the colleges. All agree that the hospitality of Greensboro is 

— J. M. Oldham has resigned as Captain of the University Base-ball Team 
and R. H. Johnston has been elected to the vacancy. We regret to lose 
the valuable services of Oldham in this capacity, but we are glad to know 
that he will retain his position on the team ; a better catcher could not be 
found. Dick Johnston will make an excellent captain, and will success- 
fully pilot our team to victory. The team has been chosen as follows : 
Oldham, c; Floyd, p.; L. Jones, 1 b.; Robertson, 2 b.; Hoke, 3 b.; Wood, 
s. s.; Moye, 1. f.; Johnston, (Captain), c. f.; Hendren, r. f.; Lanier, p. and c; 
substitute, Kenan. The team is subject to change at any time. 

— The University Glee Club have about completed arrangements for con- 
certs to be given in Goldsboro, April 28th, and in Wilmington, April 29th ; 
an entertainment for the benefit of college athletics will also be given in 
Durham Monday evening April 18th. The Glee Club have also arranged 
for a concert before the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly at the coming 
session in June. The club is practising almost daily, and will make these 
concerts a success. 

— The second monthly sermon under the auspices of the University Y. 
M. C. A. was preached in Gerrard Hall Sunday evening, February 28th, by 
Rev. Dr. B. F. Dixon, President of Greensboro Female College. Dr. Dixon's 
reputation had preceded him, and though our expectations were high, we 
were not disappointed. The sermon was very forcible and scholarly, 
affording much material for reflection and study, and was greatly enjoyed 
by the large audience that had assembled to hear him. 

— Since our last issue, several changes have been made in the dates for 
the Base-ball team. The correct list to date is : April 16th, Guilford Col- 
lege vs. University, at Chapel Hill ; April 22nd, Oak Ridge vs. U., on the 
latter's grounds ; April 29th, Wake Forest vs. U., at Raleigh ; U. of Va. vs. 
U. of N. C, at Charlottesville, May 10th and 11th ; Washington and Lee 
vs. U., at Lynchburg, May 12th ; Richmond College vs. University (proba- 
bly), at Richmond, May 13th. The manager of the team has also written 


to Wofford College and Furman University for dates, and to Vanderbilt 
University for a game in this State. Davidson College will be unable to 
play any games, and Trinity College has cancelled her date with us, as she 
is unable to organize a team. Steps are being taken to arrange a game 
with the University of Virginia team to be played Wednesday afternoon 
of Commencement on our grounds. 

Our team is in good condition, and continues to improve. The team 
that downs the white and blue will have to hustle. 

— Dr. R. L. Payne, Jr., of Lexington, N. C, an alumnus of the Univer- 
sity, and one of the most distinguished physicians of our State, delivered a 
very instructive and entertaining address on " The Relationship of Mind 
and Body," in Gerrard Kail Thursday evening, March 10th. 

Throughout the address, the speaker exhibited a thorough knowledge of 
his subject, and treated it in an able and pleasing manner. He spoke of 
the number of great minds the usefulness of which have been greatly 
impaired by a lack of attention to the simple laws of health, and impressed 
upon us the importance and value of physical culture under proper direc- 

Unfortunately the lecture was delivered while we were in the midst of 
examinations and many were thus deprived of the pleasure of hearing Dr. 

— By the kindness of President Winston we are able to furnish to our 
readers the following 


Sunday morning, May 29th, Baccalaureate Sermon, by Rev. J. W. Car- 
ter, D. D. 

Monday evening, May 30th, annual reunion of the Dialectic and Philan- 
thropic Societies. 

Tuesday, May 31st, Alumni day. 11 a. m., annual meeting of the 
Alumni Association; annual address, by Pres. C D. Mclvor: Memorial 
address on the Life and Character of Col. Win, L. Saunders, by Col. A. M. 
Waddell ; Reunion of the Class of '82. 8 — 10 p. m., Oration by Representa- 
tives of the Societies. 10 — 12 p. m., President's Reception. 

Wednesday, June 1st, Commencement day. 11 a. m., orations by the 
graduates ; award of medals, prizes, etc.; reading of reports ; conferring of 
degrees. Commencement Oration by Senator John G. Carlisle, of Ken- 
tucky. 8 — 10 p. m., Concert by the University Glee Club. 


— The Annual Field Day will be April 18th this year. The exercises, 
under the direction of Prof. Mangum, promise to be very interesting. 
They will consist of one- mile run, 100-yards dash, hurdle race, barrel race- 
pole vaulting, high jump, etc., etc., prizes being awarded to the successful 
contestants in each case. Arrangements are also being made for another 
tennis tournament for a prize and the championship of college in singles 
to be played sometime during the present month. Would it not be a good 
idea to have a tournament for the championship in doubles? 

— Mr. N. T. Cobb, an old University boy, whose marriage was recently 
referred to in these pages, and for many years private secretary to Major 
John C. Winder, General Manager of the Seaboard Air Line, has been 
promoted to the position of Auditor of Receipts and Disbursements for the 
E. & G. R. R., R. & A. Air Line, D. & N. R. R. and the G. C. & N. R. R., 
with head-quarters at Raleigh. We are glad to know of Mr. Cobb's 
deserved promotion. 




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Old Series Vol. XXII. No. 6. New Series Vol. Xjf. 



George W. Connor, W. E. Rollins, 

C. F. Harvey. E. Payson Willard. 

Howard E. Rondthaler, ] -n • ■,*■ 

W. E. DardenI J Business Managers. 

Published six times a year under the auspices of the Philanthropic and 
Dialetic Societies. Subscription, $1.00. Single copy, 20 cents. 

Entered at the Post Office of Chapel Hill as second class matter. 


Walter Clark was born in Halifax County, on the nineteenth of 
August, 1846. 

When the Civil War broke out in 1861, there were many en- 
thusiastic young patriots at Col. Tew's Military Academy at Hills- 
boro, but out of all of them an athletic, handsome young fellow of 
only fourteen years was chosen to be Drill-master of Pettigrew's 
Twenty-second North Carolina Eegiment. The youth was Walter 
Clark. He went with the regiment to Eichmond, and Evansport 
on the Potomac, and the nest year he was made Adjutant of the 
Thirty-fifth North Carolina, then commanded by Col. Matt W. 
Eansom. In this capacity young Clark served in the first Mary- 
land campaign, being at the capture of Harper's Ferry, and being 
mentioned for gallantry in the reports of the battles of Sharpsburg 
and Fredericksburg. His regiment was among those which bore 
the brunt of the attack on Marye's Heights. 

When his brigade returned home to recruit in 1863, Clark re- 
signed, and as he had pursued his studies while m the camp, he 
was enabled to enter the Senior Class in the University of North 
Carolina, from which he graduated with first honors in 1864. 


Among his classmates were W. A. Guthrie and .Judge Augustus 
Van Wyck.'of the City Court of Brooklyn. 

The day after graduation he received the appointment of Major 
of the Sixth Battalion of Junior Reserves, and shortly after was 
made Lieutenant-Colonel of the Sixty-ninth North Carolina, at- 
tached to Hoke's Division, being at that time only seventeen years 
old. He fought at Southwest Crock and Bentonsvillc, and sur- 
rendered with Johnston at High Point, May 2, 18G5. 

He studied law under Judge Battle ; also at a law office on Wall 
Street, New York, and at Columbia Law College, Washington, 
D. C. Receiving his license in 18G8, he practiced law first at Scot- 
land Neck, then going to Halifax, he established the law-firm of 
Clark & Mullen, his partner being Mr. J. M. Mullen, a prominent 
lawyer, now of Petersburg, Va. While there, he was twice a can- 
didate for the legislature, suffering defeat narrowly and greatly 
reducing the usual Republican majority of 2,500 in that County. 

In 1874 lie married Miss Susan Graham, the only daughter of 
Hon. W. A. Graham, of Hillsboro, and removed to Raleigh where 
he has made his home ever since. 

Mr. Clark being elected a lay delegate to the Methodist Ecumen- 
ical Council in London in 1881, embraced the opportunity to take 
an extensive European tour. In 1885 Governor Scales appointed 
him to the Judgeship of the Superior Court, to which he was 
again nominated by acclamation in the Democratic convent'on of 
188G, and elected by the people the same year. 

Judge Clark withdrew his name voluntarily from the list of 
aspirants for the gubernatorial chair in 1888, when his prospects 
for receiving the nomination were flattering. The same year he 
was honored by being selected to deliver the Literary Address 
before the two societies of the University. 

Governor Fowle appointed him to be a Justice of the Supreme 
Court in November, 1880, and again he was honored by receiving 
the unanimous nomination of the Democratic State Convention in 
1800 to be continued in the high office to which he had been 
appointed, and again was triumphantly elected for a term of eight 
years. Judge Clark is reflecting great credit upon the highest 
tribunal of our State by his opinions, which show that with a 


profound erudition in the law, he combines unremitting research 
and labor. 

Judge Clark is probably as well known as a writer as a jurist. 
It is remembered that some years ago the State was threatened 
with a movement similar to that of the Readjusters in Virginia, 
on account of the bad feeling between the eastern and western 
sections of North Carolina, occasioned by bad management in the 
construction of the Western North Carolina Railroad. Judge Clark 
studied the situation and wrote what is commonly spoken of as his 
famous "Mud Cut Letter.' 1 It was an exceedingly well-written and 
forcible communication on the policy of the State's relationship to 
the management of the Western North Carolina Road, which 
greatly enhanced his reputation as a strong and luminous writer, 
and was a potent factor in the change of policy which resulted in 
the completion of the road. The echoes of another strong article 
of his have not yet died away. It was on "Government Telegraph 
and Telephone," favoring governmental control and management 
as in the postal service. It has attracted much attention and 
been widely copied. 

Judge Clark is the author also of "Overruled Cases"; "Laws 
for Business Men," and Clark's "Annotated Code of Civil Proce- 



'Neath Southern skies, whose crystal blue — 
Star-jeweled at night its concave through — 
Flings sunshine down like golden mead 
Whose bird-songs thrill with Cupid's creed 
And maidens mock and youths pursue. 

Loves rose, that flower of flame and dew, 
It springs, it buds, it blooms for you — 
Swift as to earth you toss its seed, 
"Neath Southern skies. 

And fades as soon? If one but knew! 
Is't arbor vita?, or is't rue, 
Say Cupid? Oh, thou rogue indeed, 
I trust thee not! Thy flower's a weed ! 
Yet, I could wish thy words were true 
'Neath Southern skies. 

cupid's reply. 

If you believe my words not true 
You doubt the power of your eyes; 
Those eyes of deep and tender blue 
Can fill my heart with love, most true, 
And make me give my soul to you 
'Neath Southern skies. 

'Neath Southern skies? Yes, everywhere, 
For where thou art my heart is there, 
And everywhere the skies are blue 
If they only bend o'er you. 
The sweetest flower lifts its head 
Where'er thy footsteps chance to (read. 
And so my love would be as true 
'Neath Northern skies. 


When one speaks of the wild forests, of camps and hunting ex- 
peditions and the like, some remote region, far from the older 
settled parts of the country, presents itself to the mind. Thei'e 
is at once the idea of primeval woods and wild beasts, and the hardy 
pioneers of civilization with all the rough features of frontier life. 

And yet almost in the heart of the oldest settled parts of this 
country there are great stretches of unbroken foi'ests as wild and 
solitary as may be found in the farthest frontier Territory — woods 
in which the bear leads her cubs through tangled thickets, and 
the wild cat glides with fierce green eyes, and the brown deer 
strolls, feeding nervously. 

To say nothing of the mountain regions, parts of which are still 
as wild as they were a century ago, there are all along the South 
Atlantic coast-range tens of thousands of acres of pine woods and 
swamps, and savannahs, and " bays" (as the evergreen thickets on 
the North Carolina coast are called) which are almost literally in 
a primitive condition, and which are filled with game of every 
kind, while the lakes and streams within their limits are alive with 
fish and wild fowl. In this region the sportsman can, for all his 
purposes, get almost as far away from the disturbing influences of 
the "madding crowd" as if he were in Alaska, while he will 
escape the rigors of a harsh climate and be surrounded by a flora 
and breathe an atmosphere unequalled on earth. If he can find 
anywhere else the same sport, with the same or equal concom- 
tants, it must be in some, as yet, undiscovered country. Occasion- 
ally too, indeed quite often, he will meet some native whose com- 
panionship in these solitudes will be a source of rare entertain- 
ment, and furnish opportunity for the study of a quaint and 
peculiar type of civilization. He will hear a dialect, too, which 
although often affected by writers for periodicals and newspapers 
is as different from their representation of it as the stereotyped 
expressions which they attribute to the negroes are, from those 


actually used by them. For instance the expression "dis am" so 
and so, which is universally put into the mouth of the negro, is 
one which in a life-long experience among them I have never once 
heard. "He are" and "dey is" are constantly used, but "dis am" 
and "he am", never. For "are you going"? a Northern New 
Englander sometimes says "be you goin "?, while an old-fashioned 
negro on the coast of North Carolina will say " is yunner gwine " ? 
As great misapprehension exists, too, in regard to the character- 
istics of the pincy woods white man. He is not a long-haired 
barbarian, filled with whiskey and always fighting, but ordinarily 
a kind and polite, but courageous fellow ; careless and generous, 
but ignorant and prejudiced, with strong local attachments and 
great faith in his ideals, one of which is that dogs are absolutely 
essential to human happiness, and that without at least one gun in 
every house, even if "she's out o' fix," liberty is impossible. He is 
generally a religious man fond of "going to meeting," but regards 
the doctrine of non-resistance and the turning of the cheek to the 
smiter (except to hit him) as intended for somebody else. He is 
not the tallow-faced loafer whom travellers see hanging about rail- 
way stations, but, although his complexion is generally typical of 
a climate where the sun shines and the trees are ever green, he is 
often a ruddy man and averages well in height and strength. He 
is not as great a hunter as formerly, because he has caught the 
spirit of the age, albeit in a mild form, and now regards the woods 
and the soil with an eye more speculative. Still the force of habit 
asserts itself in him, though less frequently, and a camp-fire 
enlivens him as of yore. 

One of the quaintest and most original characters I ever met 
was one of these piney woods people. Tall, brawny, stooping in 
his broad shoulders and slow of movement, with full bearded face, 
out of which looked two grey eyes whose mixed expression of pity 
and humor was most winning, his most striking characteristic was 
the indescribable drawl with which he spoke. It was impossible 
to rosist its effect; it invested even the most serious subject with 
fun, although its owner rarely smiled. I believe the most boister- 
ous hour of my life was after midnight, while on a camp-hunt 
with this man and several others, and while lying under a brush 


tent through which the rain was dripping and in front of which a 
large log fire was burning. He had waked up, and being unable 
to sleep again rose, and lighting his pipe, sat gazing at the camp- 
fire. The rest of us were asleep. He was silent, but by that mys- 
terious influence which seems to operate under such circumstances 
I opened my eyes and lay watching him for a few moments. The 
glow of the fire, resting full on his face, and the intense darkness 
all around made every feature and every line of that quaint coun- 
tenance distinctly visible. From a seriousness that was really 
solemn, it gradually relaxed into an expression of amiability, and, 
finally, into one of such irresistible fun that I laughed audibly and 

"Old man what are you thinking about?" 

"Hey? I didn't know any of you was 'wake," he drawled. 

" Yes, I'm wide awake, and I want to know what it is that has 
got you to smiling so at this time of night and in such weather as 

Our conversation roused the other sleepers, who at first lay listen- 
ing, but presently rose and began a general pipe-lighting as the old 
man answered my question. 

"I was jist a thinkin' to myself," he said, "'bout the time me 
an' Ellick Hudson was a courtin' the same gal up here in Bladen 
county, an' 'bout how mad I made Ellick by makin' up some 
poetry on him, an' how the gals all laughed, an' Ellick wanted to 
fight me — an' all sich stuff." 

"Let's have the poetry, old man," was the general exclamation. 

" Oh, hit's bin so long sence them days I've done forgot now 
ezackly how the poetry was. but I know hit made Ellick powerful 
mad, an' the neighborhood gals was alius a sayin' some of it when 
Ellick was about, tell he natally left the neighborhood an' moved 
out to the Western country — an' I haint heerd nothin' of Ellick 
sence befo' the war," replied the old man, with slow and plaintive 

" So you ran him off, did you ?" 

" I didn't run him off, for Ellick weren't afeered of no man that 
ever trod shoe-leather, but he jist couldn't stand the gals a throwin' 
up that poetry at him wherever he went." 


"Couldn't you give us a sample of it, if no more?" asked one of 
the party. 

"Lemme think a spell and maj^be I kin," said the old man. 

He was in the same position as when I first awoke and saw him ; 
seated with his baek against one of the props of the brush tent, 
his arms clasped around his knees, a short stemmed cob pipe in 
his mouth, his felt hat pulled down over his ears, and dripping the 
rain on his broad shoulders, and his eyes, with a far-away look in 
them, fixed on the log-fire. After a pause, he said : 

"I can't remember the whole of it now, but part of it was this-a- 
way," and in a sing-song style, with the longest possible drawl, he 
began to recite the poem, so urgently requested by the Company 
who sat and lay around under the brush-tent. I have seen an 
audience "paralyzed," as a colored orator of my acquaintance calls 
it, when a crowd of darkies become frantic with excitement, or are 
roaring with glee — but the effect of the old man's recital of his 
poetry upon his audience stands alone in my memory. If it were 
possible to recall it, even with perfect accuracy, it would, in cold 
type, convey no adequate idea of the scene. Although he said he 
did not remember it all before ho began, it must have been at least 
twenty minutes before he finished repeating it; and the seriousness 
of his manner, the indescribable intonation of his voice, the homely 
wit and the broad humor with which he depicted his rival's efforts 
to win the object of his affections, and the disasters that befel 
him — culminating on his last visit to her, in his being chased by 
a bull whose wrath was kindled by a piece of red flannel which a 
mischievous boy had pinned to his coat tail — threw the company 
into spasms, and the woods rang with their shouts. During all 
this hilarity the old man preserved his grave, almost solemn, ex- 
pression of countenance and remained in the same position, only 
removing his pipe from his mouth occasionally for a moment or 

"Old Bill Willis," the oldest hunter in the county, was in the 
party, and though be couldn't help laughing at the "poetry" 
(which he had listened to before) he felt that it would never 
do for him to cut no figure in this entertainment, and 

therefore when the storm of fun began to abate a little, he tonta- 


tively observed that he remembered Ellick Hudson " mighty well," 
and had " seed him a heap wuss skeart an' run a mighty sight 
faster'n he did when the bull was atter him." Of course there was 
an immediate inquiry as to the event referred to by old Bill and, 
before he answered, the grey eyes of the poet turned sadly toward 
him, and the pitiful look came into them. 

" Well, the time I'm a talking about," said old Bill, " was when 
the hoop-snake came so nigh gittin' him." 

"The what?" asked one of the party. 

" The hoop-snake — Some folks don't believe there's any sich a 
thing as a hoop-snake, but 'cause they hain't never seed one 's no 
reason why there hain't none. A man's a pizen fool to talk that 
away. Hoop-snakes hain't mighty common to be sho' but I've 
seed several of 'em in my time. The one I'm a talkin' about, 
though, that come so nigh a gittin' Ellick Hudson, tuck the lead. 
The way hit happened was this : Me an' Ellick was a drivin' 
down here in the Dead Neck, an' the dogs they struck a trail, an' 
from the way they worried about, we know'd hit was a ole' buck, 
an' as they kep' circlin' furder towards the pond we know'd the 
ole' buck was a leavin' the drive : So me an' Ellick lef ' our stands 
an' cut acros't the head o' the bay to git to two other stands, an' 
jist as we got on a little risin' ground we thought we heerd the 
dogs a turnin' back, an' we stopped to listen. Ellick was a stand- 
in' right by a hickory tree 'bout six inches thick, an' I was 'bout 
twenty foot away from him. Presently I heerd a sort o' whizzin' 
sound, an' at the same time Ellick he yelled wuss'n a Injun an' 
jumped behind the tree, an' as I looked that way I seed what 
'peared to be a hoop, rollin' like a streak of lightnin' right at El- 
lick, an' jist as he jumped behin' the hoop riz up in the air, an' 
sorter straightened out an' drove one eend in the tree with a 
whack, an' swung thar a swayin' from side to side. Then I 
know'd what was the matter, an' I went an' killed the snake ; but, 
gentlemen ef ever you seed a man run, hit was Ellick. There 
were'nt nary dog in the woods that could er cotch him for the fust 
quarter. He drapped his gun an' jist sorter seemed to lift hisself 
from the ground an' pais over the wire grass an' logs same as ef 
he had wings, an' " 


" Hold on Uncle Bill ?" said one, "did you say the snake drove 
one end of himself into the tree?"' 

"To be sho' he did. lie had a horn like a chicken spur on the 
eend of his tail, an', gentlemen, you may believe it or notjistas 
you please, by the time I got through a killin' that snake an' a pul- 
lin' his horn out'n the tree I'll be durned ef the tree wern't plumb 
dead, an' the hickory nuts an' leaves were't a fallin' off' n hit like 
a shower o' rain. 

The negro cook, a grey haired old darkey, who was lying under 
another shelter a few yards away, groaned and said to himself 
(but loud enough to be heard) •' please de Lord, dat licks de skil- 
let," and the hunting party slept no more that night. 

At day light hot coffee, venison steak, corn bread and fried eggfl 
perfumed the atmosphere around the brush tent, the horses were 
saddled, the dogs were fed just enough to whet their appetites, 
and the "driver " with one suppressed toot of his horn which 
called them all to his side, mounted and after designating the 
"stands" to the several hunters took his departure for the place, 
a mile distant, where he would enter the drive. The hunters, after 
he had gone a little while, sought their different stands, and each 
hitching his horse in a concealed spot and taking a position be- 
tween the horse and the drive, awaited the coming of the hounds. 

There is, for a man blessed with a poetic temperament a eh arm 
in such a situation. "The breezy call of incense breathing 
morn" — the silence of the grand woods — the soft whisper of the 
wind in the pine tops — the changing hues of the sky before the 
advance of the still hidden sun — the gradual awakening by imper- 
ceptible degrees of the dawn — the first faint stir in the insect 
world — the fresh and fragrant smell of the damp bays and savan- 
nahs — the far distant and mellowed sound of the " cock's shrill 
clarion " in some isolated settlement — the reveille of the wood- 
pecker, vigorously beaten on a lightning-blasted pine — these, and 
the keen edged expectancy of the sportsman who strains his eye 
and ear for the music of the hounds, and the plunge of the fright- 
ened stag, combine to make a charming situation. I say. for a man 
with poetic temperament. And yet I cannot assert that our poet, 
"the old man." was as deeply affected by his surroundings, as he 


appeared to be by the hope of getting meat. His stand was near- 
est mine, (about a hundred yards distant) and in the open pine 
woods he was plainly visible, except from the direction of the 
driver. He was sitting on a log, with his gun across his lap, his 
elbows resting on his kneos, his chin supported by his clasped 
hands, and his face set fixedly toward the drive. Presently was 
heai*d, indistinctly because of the distance, the voice of a single 
hound — that sound which, like the first shot on a skirmish line, 
sends the blood tingling along the veins and quickens the action 
of the heart. Then a little more distinctly the same voice and 
with it, two or three fainter and more distant ones; then a con- 
fusion of sounds, and finally the clear and stirring cry of the pack 
gradually swelling in volume as it bore towards us, and sinking 
again as the course of the chase varied. In a few moments came 
the report of a gun, but away in rear of the dogs who were still 
bearing toward us, and then we knew that there was more than 
one deer up, and that the driver had got a shot at one that had 
circled and was going in a different direction. I looked toward the 
"old man" as the dog came on. He had not moved a muscle, 
apparently, but sat like one of the bumps on the log. The game, 
unless he should be diverted, was evidently bound to pass either 
my own or the old man's stand, and in a very few moments- 
Eagerly hoping that luck would favor me, and anxious to show 
the old man that a "town feller" knew a thing or two about the 
business, I stood, with both barrels of my "Parker" cocked, ready 
to tumble the antlered monarch, or two of them if there should be 
two, as soon as he or they came in range; but I was doomed to 
disappointment, for when nearing the edge of the bay and while 
his leaps were distinctly audible, the buck turned down towards 
the old man's stand, and I called to him, " look out old man, he's 
going straight to you," and then turned to see how he would act 
under such circumstances. He still sat motionless in the same 
position, and fearing he might have dropped asleep, I yelled to 
him again, and just then the buck, clearing the outer fringe of the 
bay with a splendid bound, right opposite to his stand, went 
straight towards where he sat. The distance between them was 
not forty paces, and there sat the old man with his elbows on his 


knees, his chin in his hands, and his gun on his lap, looking right 
at the buck who must inevitably run over him, if he remained 
where he was. I was disgusted and was about to express my sen- 
timents in a loud voice, when, simultaneously as it seemed to me, 
the old man was on his feet, the report of his old single barrel rang 
through the woods, and the buck was on his back with all four 
feet in the air. Then he blew one short blast on his cow horn, and 
sat down again on the log as before. 

When I walked down to where he sat, he drawled. 

"You haint much used to drivin', are ye?" 

I replied that I considered myself a veteran in the business and 
had killed several deer. The pitiful look came into his face again 
for a moment; he drew from his hip pocket a plug of tobacco, bit 
off a piece and said, after chewing in silence for a few minutes, 
"Old Bill Willis 'pears to be improvin' in his memory as he gits 
older. The last time I heerd him tell that story 'bout the hoop- 
snake he said hit was a gum tree the snake struck hits tail into, 
an' that hit was in the Spring time o' year, an' he never said a 
word 'bout Ellick Hudson bein' thar. But I reckin' hit does jist 
as well one way as tother." " That was a pretty hard story, old 
man," I replied, " but Old Bill told it just as if the believed every 
word of it." "Yes, an' hit seems to do him a power o' good, too, 
when he gits a chance to tell 'bout that hoop — hello run back to 
your stand, there's another one a comin'," he cried, and began to 
load his gun as fast as he could while 1 ran back and took my 
place. Scarcely had I done so when the longed for opportunity 
presented itself, and in full view of the old man I "downed" one 
with each barrel, out of three that passed me, and in my exultation 
called out; 

"Old man, how will that do?" He took off his hat and waved 
it, but said not a word, for it was contrary to an established prin- 
ciple with him never to "holler" while at a deer stand. That night 
thero were four deer hanging up in camp, and everybody was in 
good humor except old Bill Willis, who seemed to bo depressed 
and disinclined to conversation. This was so unusual that after 
the pipes were lighted the old man, sitting in his accustomed 
place, drawled out: 


" Uncle Bill, 'pears like you don't have much to say to-night. 
You haint seed any hoop-snake to-day have ye?" 

This produced a laugh at old Bill's expense, but he was equal to 
the occasion, and "brought down the house" by his reply. 

"No, I haint," he said. " but I heerd the fool-killer was in the 
neighborhood, and I'm a grievin' to think how short your time is." 
With perfect equanimity, and with the inimitable accent long 
drawn out, the old man replied : 

a-hickory-tree-and-see-the- nuts- and- leaves-a-fallin'-in- five - 
minutes ! But-ef-I-had-to-wait-for-that-I'd-never-die." 

""Winner by a length," exclaimed the sporting editor, who was 
the life of the party. 

When the camp-hunt ended, and the "town fellers" were return- 
ing home, the old man accompanied them as far as the cross-road 
which led to his home, and on the way (which was several miles) 
the subject of conversation was the election which had recently 
occurred. He had little to say until the cross-road was reached, 
where he was to take leave of the party; but when he got there 
he reined up his mouse-colored nag, and, leisurely throwing his 
left leg over the pummel of his saddle, said: 

"I've got to leave you here, but 'fore we part I jist want to tell 
ye what old Bill Willis said to Squire Moore 'bout the tariff. He'd 
been out here to Town Creek to hear the candidates speak, an' 
when he was a gwine back home he met Squire, an' Squire axed 
him what they was a talkin' 'bout, and he said the tariff." 

"Well, what do you think 'bout it, uncle Bill?" said Squire. 

"1 think hit's onconstitutional," sez uncle Bill. 

"Did you ever read the Constitution?" sez Squire. 

"Bead thunder; I don't know a letter in the book," sez uncle 

And the old man, resuming his position in the saddle, and cluck- 
ing to his horse, drawled out : 

"'MOBNIN' GENTLEMEN." A. M. Waddell. 


A breath, 
Vague, tender, trembling as the Summer star 
That, through dim azure, heralds from afar 

The long day's death. 

A glance, 
Shy as a startled fawn, that fleeing, turns, 
Glowing, as when, through folded rose leaves, burns 

The sun-god's lance. 

A word, 
That spoken, floods with crimson cheek and throat 
And thrilling falls, as if some wild bird's note 

The faint air stirred. 

"Kb all ; 

And yet 'tis Life — 'tis Love! Within my arms 
She trembling lies, and all Love's vague alarms 
In soft tears fall. 

— E. P. C. 


By Charles D. McIver, President State Normal and Industrial 



No association of men can be permanent without having con- 
stantly before it an object to be accomplished. In order that this 
Alumni Association may live, it must have at least one well defined 
serious purpose. The pleasure of our annual meetings alone will 
not hold it together. But it will strengthen the zeal of those who 
are already members, and others will be attracted to join us, if, in 
addition to the natural pleasures of annual re-unions, it is made 
clear in the outset that the Association is going to have an honor- 
able and successful career of usefulness to the State and to the 
University. Aimlessness, whether in individuals or institutions, 
means stagnation, dissipation and death. 

I believe it to be our greatest concern on this occasion to map 
out the work that this Association ought to undertake and to de- 
cide on a policy for its future course. An association that does 
nothing but meet will soon meet no more forever. It is the pur- 
pose of my remarks this morning to suggest three things that we 
can do which will give life and dignity to our organization, mate- 
rially aid the University, and be instrumental in promoting educa- 
tion throughout the State. 

First. The Alumni Association ought to nominate to each Gen- 
eral Assembly a certain number of the trustees to be elected by 
that body. There are eighty trustees of the University, divided 
into four classes. The terms of twenty expire every two years, 
and there are always a few other vacancies caused by death. It is 
probable that ten of the twenty whose terms expire will be re-ap- 
pointed, leaving from ten to fifteen vacancies to be filled by new 
men. I believe the Alumni Association ought to nominate, or 

280 AL UMN1 A I) I) RESS. 

practically name, at least half of these new men. Or it might be 
better for this Association and the local associations to name twen- 
cy men and ask the General Assembly to select at least half of 
their new trustees from this list. I do not think that the Legisla- 
ture would disregard the request, and I am confident that our 
selections would be equally as good as those that a small commit- 
tee from the General Assembly could make. This course would 
not only put the interests of the University into the hands of its 
best friends, but it would add a new interest to this and the local 
associations. It would increase our membership and attendance, 
and thereby help us to carry forward other work that we ought 
to do. 

►Second. The University Magazine ought to have a better sup- 
port from the Alumni than it has now, and at the same time it 
might be made an effective means of helping the work of the Asso- 
ciation. Among the Alumni there are many editors of ability. I 
believe that we ought to have a department in the Magazine un- 
der the direction of one or more editors selected annually by this 
Association. In this way we could add to the interest that the 
Alumni take in the Magazine, and we could also publish and em- 
phasize any plans that the Association desires to put before the 

Third. In my estimation, the chief work of the Alummi Asso- 
ciation, to which all other undertakings ought to be secondaiy 
and subsidiary, should be in the line of co-operative philanthropy. 
Every living alumnus of the University ought to be a member of 
the Association and ought to pay into its aid fund for students at 
least $2 a year, which was the amount of the annual dues under 
the old organization. There are nearly 2,000 Alumni of the Uni- 
versity living in this and other States. If each man here will take 
a little trouble on himself, we can have 1,500 of them members of 
the Association before next commencement. This would mean :m 
annual income of $3,000 or $4,000, or equivalent to the income 
from an endowment of $50,000 or $00,000. En my short experi- 
ence last summer in the interest of this fund, I found that there 
were man}' friends of the University, not alumni, who were glad 
to join the Association as honorary members and glad to help in 


our work of aiding worthy young men to get an education. So far 
we have on our roll of members about 400 names, about seventy- 
five of whom are honorary members and never came to the Uni- 
versity a day. The average annual subscription of all of our mem- 
bers is nearly $4. About $1,200 has already been paid in on the 
fir , st year's subscription. That is for 1891. A number who sub- 
scribed asked that their payments begin in the second year, 1892. 
Nearly every alumnus who is properly approached will join the 
Association with an annual subscription of $2, $5, or $10. Quite a 
number have made their subscriptions $25, $50, and 

Of course it is understood that these subscriptions can be chang- 
ed at any time or be discontinued altogether, but it is not proba- 
ble that we will lose many members, if any at all. I have found 
only three alumni who refused to join. One plead poverty and 
the other two had personal reasons for not joining. The number 
of subscriptions I could secure for this fund was limited almost 
solely by the time I could give to the work. Literally time was 

In my report as Treasurer there will be printed the names of the 
members of the Association, and an account will be rendered show- 
ing what disposition the Executive Committee has made of the 
contributions for 1891. A copy of this report will be mailed to 
each member, and he can see who in his community has not yet 
joined the Association. 

The Executive Committee appointed by the Association last 
commencement, consisting of President Winston, Prof. E. A. Al- 
derman and myself, directed that all our funds this year should be 
spent in free scholarships and fellowships, or in loans, without in- 
terest, to young men of brains and character who have not suffi- 
cient money to pay their way through college. About twenty 
young men have been helped and one fellowship of $200 has been 
awarded. In this way we are accomplishing three very important 
results : 

1. Helping those who need help and who are worthy of it. 

2. Increasing the attendance and revenues of the University. 


3. Raising" the standard of scholarship by tempting studious and 
ambitious young men to pursue a post graduate course at the Uni- 

We have done well for the first year, but there is no reason why 
we should not do a great deal better. The reason we have only 
400 members is because your committee did not have the time and 
opportunity to see more alumni. Let us not be satisfied with what 
we have done. If every member will do his duty, we will have 
$3,000 next year to invest in the education of worthy young men, 
instead of $1,200, as we had this last year. 

One reason why there is so little progress in the world is that 
we are so much inclined to make past achievements the highest 
standard of excellence. 

In a town where I once lived there was an old colored barber 
who was commonly known as Aleck. He was fond of white peo- 
ple, and his greatest delight was to compliment his customers 
while they sat in his barber chair. He was blessed with an inex- 
haustible supply of taffy, which he dispensed to his customers 
with good-natured impartiality, and yet with some discrimination. 
Flattery flowed from his lips like water over Niagara Falls. When 
he could not compliment the shape of a man's head, he turned his 
batteries on the color of his hair, the beauty of his mustache, 
which then was or was going to be. When all these things failed 
or were exhausted, he began to ask about what beautiful lady that 
was he saw you with a few days ago. Or he would say to a proud 
father, "How beautiful your little daughter is, and what beautiful 
manners! She certainty is a perlite little lady! Do very imago 
of her mother and looks jess like you." 

But on one occasion the ugliest man in the county and a stran- 
ger came into Aleck's shop. He was painfully ugly. He was so 
ugly, as I once heard a man say, that he hurt, No greater tribute 
can be paid to his ugliness than to say that the very sight of him 
baffled all Aleck's powers of flattery. Aleck shaved him in solemn 

The visit was repeated and still Aleck could say nothing. But, 
finally one day, he took a long breath, worked up his most amiable 
smile and said : "Mr. Jones, when you fust come into my shop 


and I fust commenced shavin' of you, I thought you was one of 
de homeliest men I ever seed, but now since I's come to see you 
very often and shave you frequently, 'You holds yer own 'emark- 
ably well.' " 

The trouble is that too many people are content to merely hold 
their own. 

But it must be a pleasure to all patriots to see thai North Caro- 
lina is more than holding ber own educationally. In spite of 
general financial depression all hor educational interests are in 
better condition than ever before. 

This University has more students than it has had since its 
re-organization, and probably the number from North Carolina is 
as large as it ever was before the war. 

There is more liberality among our wealthy men towards edu- 
cational institutions than there has ever been before. There are 
two reasons for this — 

First. They have more money and can afford to be more liberal. 

Second. There is getting to be a general recognition of the fact 
that the surest way to do a good that will perpetuate and multi- 
ply itself is to put money in a good, strong institution of learning. 
In Daniel Webster's tribute to the school teacher in his great 
Darh mouth College speech before the Supreme Court of the United 
States, he said: "If we work upon marble it will perish ; if we 
work upon brass time will efface it; if we rear temples they will 
crumble into dust; but if we work upon immortal minds, if we im- 
bue them with right principles — the just fear of God and love of 
ourfellowmen — we engrave on those tablets something that will 
brighten to all eternity." 

The greatest philanthropist in the world, as well as the greatest 
monument builder, is the true teacher. Next to the greatest (and 
the world will consider him the greatest) is the man who estab- 
lishes a great college or university, where the teacher can build his 
immortal monuments. If a man sees fit to erect such a monument 
to his name instead of building one of marble or of hoarded gold, 
let him do so, and let him be appreciated for doing it. His monu- 
ment will be a blessing to humanity — a thing that is not true of 
all monuments. 


There are few exhibitions of worse taste than to see men criti- 
cise the motives of the giver after they have accepted the benefit 
of his gift. Besides, even the lowest order of philanthropy — giving 
merely to gain the praise of men — has merit in it. Nobody is con- 
demned tor aspiring to be the richest man in the State or country. 
Is it not a higher ambition to want to be the most liberal man in 
the State or country? Which is the more creditable, for a man to 
have the ambition to give away a million dollars, or for him to as- 
pire to be a millionaire? 

The millionaire who gives away $50,000 or §100,000 may not 
rival in liberality the widow of mite fame, who cast in all that she 
had, but he certainly is several grades above the man who, having 
little or much, gives nothing, and does nothing but diagnose and 
criticize the motives of the man who gives. 

To whom much is given, we are told, from him much will be re- 
quired. True, but you and I have not yet been appointed to do 
the requiring. I hope the day will never come when a North Car- 
olinian will claim what another man possesses merely because the 
other man has more than he has. 

There has always been among people without money a disease 
that amounts to an epidemic. It is an infinite ability to direct how 
those who have money should use it. I confess that I am some- 
what affected by the contagion myself. I have some excellent ad- 
vice to give to such people when occasion offers. But it is not my 
purpose to speak to rich people today. I want to talk to a larger 

Not many of us can do great deeds of philanthropy, but by a 
combination of effort we can easily do a work that will astonish 
even the most sanguine among us. All great enterprises in busi- 
ness now require combination and co-operation. So does the great 
business of helping our fellowmen. Co-operative philanthropy does 
not glorify the individual, but it glorifies and blesses humanity. 

I have heard on two or three occasions since we have underta- 
ken this work that there is danger of letting boys get an education 
with too little self-sacrifice. Passing by the little inconsistency <>f 
those who talk that way. in that the) - do not seem to think that, 
their own boyfl will be hurl by getting an education without self- 


sacrifice, I would say that thore is no danger from this source to 
the average North Carolina child. 

Did you ever see an energetic, open-hearted sixteen-year-old boy 
ploughing in the field? His father's only possession is a large and 
growing family, three or four mules and some old rocky land. 
That boy is practically working for his board and clothes — very 
ordinary board and very ordinary clothes. Suppose the father 
tells him he may go to school — may go to this University if he is 
prepared. When the boy stops ploughing his board stops and he 
can buy no more clothing except with borrowed money. Does it 
not seem that he will have to go through enough hardship in or- 
der to be able to come here and stay at dead expense for four 
years, even if he had not one cent of tuition money to pay ? Three- 
fourths of the tuition of young men who come here is paid by the 
State appropriation, and it all ought to be free, not only here, but 
in all colleges and universities. States, churches and communities 
can well afford to furnish free instruction to all who are willing to 
go through the drudgery and self-denial and to give the time nec- 
essary to become genuinely educated people. If making tuition 
free would be considered charity, then giving three-fourths of it is 

No, my friends, do not be afraid that the boy described above, 
and the large class of which he is a type, will practice no self-de- 
nial and therefore will lack the virtue of self-reliance. Rather let 
us fear that the hardships of poverty and the lack of inspiring as- 
sociations may cower the timid by chilling that spark of hope and 
ambition which I believe natui'e has, in greater or less degree, im- 
planted in every youthful heart, and without which development 
and progress in individuals or nations would never be known. 

Some say if a boy has anything in him, poverty and unfavorable 
surroundings cannot keep him down ; it will come out. Then they 
proceed to illustrate by giving you a list of men, who are really 
such notable exceptions to ordinary humanity that their names are 
on the end of every tongue. This theory is on a par with that of 
the man who would put all his children out in the cold winter, 
bare-footed, without hats or coats, to harden them, and because 
some fellow, who is naturally a physical giant, is strong enough to 


live through it, the father boasts of his excellent method of devel- 
oping a boy. 

Nearly a century and a half ago the English garrison of a fort 
at Calcutta was captured. The prisoners, 14G in number, were 
confined in a cell twenty feet square and with only two small win- 
dows. The story is familiar to you all. Thirst, heat and foul air 
caused the death of 123 of them the first night. Twenty-three sur- 
vived and one of them has written the story of the sufferings of 
that dungeon, never to be known again except as the "Black Hole 
of Calcutta." The twenty-three who came out alive next morning 
were probably the strongest of the 146, but who will say that the 
123 who perished were worthless because they did not have the 
genius of vitality in such degree as to enable them to live in the 
midst of the death and suffocation of that horrible pit? 

A great portion of the masses of humanity to-day are in the 
Black Hole of Ignorance. They breathe no good intelloctual atmos- 
phere; have no hope and no great aspirations ; associate daily with 
narrowness, prejudice and supei'stition ; and at best their compan- 
ionship is with commonplace, ambitionless mediocrity whose intel- 
lectual scope is no broader than its physical horizon. Some men 
will overcome such obstacles and survive, but they must have the 
genius of grit to do it. Nearly everybody in this house knows 
some such genius. But let us remember, he is a genius not because 
he had these hardships and survived, but he survived because he 
was a genius. The great bulk of humanity is not composed of 
geniuses and has not enough courage, self-reliance and ambition to 
survive such hard conditions. Strong men will live through what 
will kill ordinary people. There are always in this world a lew 
choice spirits who cannot be held down — men who seem not to be 
affected by circumstances, but who, as Napoleon said, make cir- 
cumstances; but they are so rare we make heroes of them all. 

We ought to make the path easier for average humanity. The 
survival of the fittest implies the death of almost the fittest. Man}' 
a timid person, lacking confidence in himself and the world, and 
with no inheritance but poverty and ignorance, has become a bless- 
ing to humanity by a kind word and a helping hand when help 
was needed; but who can estimate the number who have despaired 


and died without the encouragement and help the more fortunate 
might have given almost without knowing it? 

I wish I could picture to this audience and to the State what I 
have seen among the boys and girls of North Carolina. So far as 
the comforts and luxuries of intellectual life are concerned, there 
is a great deal of destitution among the State's best material for 
citizenship. Indeed, the most worthy field for educational philan- 
thropy has been scarcely touched. The State, in the name of pa- 
triotism, the leading churches, in the name of religion, and wealthy 
people, in the name of philanthropy, have for years paid from 
three-fom'ths to nine-tenths of the collegiate and university instruc- 
tion given to boys and men, black and white, and to colored girls 
and women ; but the white woman in North Carolina has received 
no substantial financial recognition from the State, the church or 
the philanthropist. The result is that the white girl's tuition alone 
costs her as much as the negro girl pays for board and tuition. 
The reason of this is simple. Three-fourths of the salaries paid to 
college professors who teach white boys and colored boys and girls 
is paid by the annual State and national appropriations and by the 
income derived from endowment funds; whereas the money that 
employs the white girl's faculty must come from board and tuition 
fees alone. This discrimination strikes at the very foundation of 
educational progress. Civilization must be advanced by good 
homes and good schools, and homes and schools are made by 
women and not by men. The contention made by those who have 
advocated a reform in this matter has been not necessarily for 
co-education nor for the same kind of education, but for the same 
rate of expense in securing such education as is needed for women. 
States, churches and philanthropists ought to do at least as much 
to cheapen the cost of a woman's education as it does for a man's. 

But the strangest feature of this whole question and the reason I 
call attention to it, is the fact that not only have the Legislatures 
and church organizations and wealthy men made their appropria- 
tions for the education of men only (except that for colored wo- 
men), but the women who have had money to give have gener- 
ally given it in the same direction. 

During the past few years this University has received in do- 


nations and bequests more than $100,000, and about half of it was 
given by two women. A woman lias given a Divinity building to 
Trinity College, and the student's aid funds of different institu- 
tions for boys in this State have been liberally helped by women. 
I do not mention these donations to criticize them, but simply to 
show that women themselves seem not to have discovered the dis- 
crimination against their own sex in the matter of education. 

I trust that the next decade will witness a revolution in this par- 
ticular. I am glad that the State has finally cstablised a college 
for women on the same financial basis with this University, and 
that after September of this year the sisters of the boys who have 
almost free instruction at the University can have similar help 
at the State Normal and Industrial School at Greensboro. I am glad 
that the great Baptist denomination has decided to treat its wo- 
men as it docs its men, and that it is working now on an endow- 
ment fund for the Baptist University in Raleigh, where the sisters 
of the Wake Forest boys will receive their collegiate instruction. 
My reason for referring to this matter is to indicate a great field 
for general philanthropy, and to suggest that not only could wo- 
men of wealth with philanthropic inclinations find a good oppor- 
tunity to do good by helping institutions for their own sex, but 
also to bespeak for them and their institutions a generous encour- 
agement from all the friends of this University, which has been so 
often and so liberally helped by those who could enter neither this 
nor any other State institution, unless they were blind or deaf or 
criminal or insane. 

If all this should seem to some to be a digression, I will only say 
that my object in accepting the invitation to address 3-011 was to 
emphasize the great need of co-operative philanthropy in Xorth 
Carolina, both hero and elsewhere. Mj r special desire was to in- 
fluence as many as possible to aid us in our particular enterprise 
in connection with this University. But I would be glad to know 
that those who do not desire to help through the channel proposed 
by our Alumni Association would join with others in similar 
schemes at other educational institutions. Of course I would be 
glad for you to do it here. But above this Association, this Uni- 
versity, and all other institutions, which are only means for accom- 


plishing au eDd, I want to keep in constant view that great end, 
namely, the gradual abolition of ignorance and the flooding of the 
earth with the light of truth. We are fond of quoting, "Knowl- 
edge is power," but I fear we are inclined to forget the tremendous 
and perilous power of ignorance. I use the word in a broader 
sense than illiteracy. It is not a power to save or to make alive, 
but it is a power to damn and to destroy. Ignorance is ignorant 
even of its own friends. It is the blind Samson who destroys the 
temple, self and all. It is the wild furor of the multitude crying of 
its best friend, Crucify him! crucify him! G-ive us Barabbas! 
It is often most dangerous when combined with the highest moral 
virtues. Give to it sincerity and courage and they only add to its 
stubborn violence and its terrible destructiveness. It has destroyed 
its best friends and called it self-preservation ; persecuted and tor- 
tured in the name of the Prince of Peace ; enslaved in the name of 
freedom ; killed its best prophets in the name of progress. It 
makes the Hindoo mother throw her innocent babe to the croco- 
diles as the very climax of religious virtue. It has sent to the 
stake many of the purest men this world has ever seen and nailed 
to the cross its only perfect model. It is a sort of delirium that 
suspects friends and trusts enemies, that always sees danger where 
there is none and never sees it where it is. It is blind as night 
and thinks itself omniscient. If angels ever weep, it must often be 
over the works of honest ignorance. Not in the spirit of anger, 
but rather with that brotherly love and pity which says "Forgive 
them ; they know not what they do," let us devote ourselves to 
the abolition of this great curse which mars every blessing and 
deepens every woe that the sons of men are called upon to experi- 
ence. And let each of us do his part, whether great or small, in 
this work. Lift up your eyes and look on the fields ; for they are 
white already to harvest. We all like the story of the good shep- 
herd who left the ninety and nine and went after the one sheep 
which was lost, but it seems to me that we see the ninety and nine 
in the wilderness of ignorance appealing to us for light. The dan- 
ger is that the undertaking seems so great and each of us alone 
caii do so little, that those of us who have only one talent will bury 
it. Let us remember that doing nothing; is one of the great crimes 

290 A L UMNI A DDBE&t/S. 

of the earth. The slothful servant's sin was not in making only a 
little gain, hut it was in doing absolutely nothing; the fig tree was 
cursed not because it brought forth evil fruit, or only a little fruit, 
but because it was barren. 

When each of you has finished his work on earth I trust that his 
epitaph will be worthily written, He served his God by serving 
his fellow men ; and may you hear from the other shore, Well 
done good and faithful servant; inasmuch as you did it unto one 
of the least of these, my brethren, you did it unto me. 


— With this issue of the University Magazine our editorial career ends, 
and a new board of editors, full of new ideas and fresh energy, assumes 
coutrol of the fortunes and destiny of the Magazine. As we promised in 
the beginning, we have failed to give our readers an ideal College Magazine, 
but we trust that our honest efforts have been appreciated, and that our 
labor — one indeed without money and without price — has not been 
entirely fruitless. It has been our endeavor to catch the true University 
spirit and to reflect it in these pages. This we consider the only true object 
of a College Magazine and its only reason for existing. Under the able 
administration of our successors, we hope to see great improvements in 
every department. The following able and promising young men will edit 
the Magazine for 1892-'93: From the Philanthropic Society, F. C. Hard- 
ing, of Pitt Co., and W. P. Wooten, of Lenoir Co.; from the Dialectic 
Socieiy, F. P. Eller, of Ashe Co., and T. J. Cooper, of Cherokee Co. The 
business managers will be Messrs. A. H. Koonce, of Onslow, and T. J. 
Wilson, of Orange. These gentlemen have charge of the subscriptions, 
advertisements, etc. We bespeak for our readers a most excellent Maga- 
zine, one of greatest interest to them and of credit to the University, and 
in bidding them farewell we would beseech them and all friends of the 
State University to give this Magazine a warm and earnest support. 

Commencement for 1892. — This was a great occasion in the lives of six- 
teen young men of North Carolina. It makes the closing days of their boy- 
hood and their entrance upon the race of life. Amid all the pleasures and 
enjoyments of a Commencement time, there must be in each many sad 
sorrowful thoughts. It is a birthday for many and the pains and perils of 
birth are beneath all the gayety and pleasure of the occasion. 

The great disappointment which we sustained in not having Senator 
Carlysle with us cast a gloom over the bright hopes of the students and 
Faculty for awhile, but when our own Charles D. Mclver and Hon. A. M. 
Waddell had made their admirable addresses, and when Hon. Hannis 
Taylor, a University man delivered his charming oration on Wednesday, 
we began to feel that we had not lost so much after all. The details of 
the Commencement are given in another department, but there are some 
features worthy of special mention. One of these is the Reception of 
Tuesday night. This, like so many other happy ideas, originated in the 
mind of our honored President and was a decided success. For many 


years there has been no social opportunity offered to the young ladies and 
gentlemen of the >State, who for various reasons do not dance. It has been 
generally understood that no young lady who does not dance, would en- 
joy a visit to the University Commencement. It was partly the intention 
of the University to correct this false notion that the Reception was put 
upon the programme, and its success this year, although the weather was 
not favorable it was very gratifying to those who were interested in it. 
We hope that it will become a permanent feature of the University Com- 

The baseball games and the Glee Club entertainments mark a decided 
change in the University. These features are taking their due place in 
our life and no one who understands the need they fill will disparage 
them. College athletics have become a legitimate feature of college life 
and when it is remembered that these ball games bring all our Southern 
colleges into close connection and manly rivalry they will recommend 
themselves to all. This year's Glee Club has shown the necessity and ben- 
efits of such an organization, and it will take a prominent position in the 

Alumni Editors. — In his address before the Alumni Association on 
Tuesday, Hon. Chas. D. Mclver, as usual, delivered some very sensible and 
practical suggestions. We heartily endorse him when he says that the 
Alumni ought to take great interest in this Magazine, and that there 
ought to be an Alumni editor. We would look for good results from an 
enthusiastic and energetic editor of an Alumni Department and hope that 
some means will be adopted to have one. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that we want an editor who will do more than leave his name on the 
first page. There is room for great improvement here, and we hope it 
will be made. 


— The following comment upon the Exchange departments of College 
Journals, from the Georgetown College Journal, is very appropriate. It should 
be added, however, that no sooner than this editorial wisdom is gained 
most College editors lay down the pen, a new board of editors appears, 
and thus it goes. 

"The progress that editors and exchange men of the collegiate world 
are making was very evident from our exchanges of last month. There 
was a technicality of get-up and the roundness of phrase that betoken a 
growing experience of the tricks of the trade. This, however, is the an- 
nual course of events, especially in those papers whose managing board 
changes yearly, and who every autumn introduce a new batch of green 
hands to engineer their publications. As the term advances it is not un- 
interesting to note how the editor learns to mince his words, assume dic- 
tatorial airs, and then repose in sedate quiet that is refreshing ; and how 
the exchange man begins to qualify his praise or blame, once so earnestly 
expressed, joins in the mighty chorus that quotes and sings pseans of praise 
to the large college journals, but engages in contests of literary throat- 
cutting with smaller papers and rivals. These are the signs that, with the 
violets and the 'House To Let' placards, tell the experienced observer 
that spring is near." 

— Says the Palo Alto: " At Boston University the faculty have voted to 
permit work on the College paper to count as work in the Course, allowing 
seven hours per week to the managing editor, and two hours per week to 
each of his assistants." 

This is an excellent plan, and some such arrangement as this is what 
our University Magazine, most needs. How about it gentlemen of the 

I have a weight upon my mind, 

I overheard him say, 
"That's good," she said, " 't will keep the wind 

From blowing it away." 

— Bowdoin Orient. 

— Harvard's foot-ball account for the season of 1891 shows a balance, 
after all expenses are paid, of $6,978.28. — Ex. 


— Williams will celebrate its centennial in 1893. — Swathmore Phcenix. 

— Attendance at recitations has been made voluntary for Brown's Senior 
Class. — Ex. 

— The University of Leipsic will admit women for the first time this 
year. Six are already enrolled, of whom four are Americans. — Ex. 

— Among the recent additions to the faculty of Leland Stanford, Jr. 
University, is Mrs. Mary Sheldon Barnes, well known both as a student 
and author. 

— In a German university a student's matriculation card shields him 
from arrest, admits him at half price to theatres and takes him free to art 
galleries. — Univ. Cynic. 


"The professors are wrong," said the student at college, 

" In giving me marks that are low. 
For, with Huxley, I think that the height of all knowledge 

Is in the three words : ' I don't know ! ' " 

—Trinity Tablet. 


I never was fond of swinging a cane, 
I never disliked the taste of beer; 
And I never saw Soldene — but once, 
iEons ago, in my Freshman year. 

I never frequented Parker's much, 
For drops and conditions have had no fear ; 
So never suspended was I — but once, 
Of course, in my Sophomore year. 

I never read Descartes and Kant, 
Talked of the "ego" and reason mere; 
And T never heard Joseph Cook but once, 
'Twas enough — in my Junior year. 

I never took life in a serious way, 
And thought of my prospects of leaving hero ; 
And I never was really in love — but once, 
Well — yes, — in my Senior year. 

— New verses from the Harvard Advocate. 



What magazine is best ? Come, tell ! " 
I asked three maids one day ; 
"The Cosmopolitan," cried Nell, 
"The Century," said May. 

With merry twinkle in her eye 
And saucy mien, sweet Bess 
Declared — I know the reason why — 
"I love the College Press." 

— Univ. Cynic. 


— Chief Marshal Crawford Biggs and his assistants performed their duty 
well commencement. 

— "Gentlemen, this is a very short and easy examination on Biology ; 
even Mr. Scott ought to pass." 

— George Connor has accepted the position of Principal of theGoldsboro 
Graded School for the coming year. A deserved compliment. 

— The Editors of the University Magazine for '92-93 have been elected 
by the societies. Harding, F., Wooten and Koonce have been chosen by 
the Phi Society ; Eller, Cooper and Wilson will have charge of the business 
department. We congratulate the societies on their selections. 

— The annual contests for the medals given in each society for excellence 
in debate, composition and declamation were held in the halls of the two 
societies Friday evening, April 2'2d. In the Di. society the debaters' medal 
was awarded to T. J. Cooper, the declaimer's medal to H. H. Atkinson, 
and the essayist's to Walser. The committees for the Phi. society de- 
cided that George W. Connor, C. F. Harvey and C. II. Harding were en- 
titled respectively to the debater's, essayist's and declaimer's medals. 

— At 8:30 o'clock Saturday evening, May 7th, C. F. Harvey, President, 
called to order the large audience which had assembled in the Phi. hall to 
listen to the fifth semi-annual public debate between the Philanthropic 
and Dialectic societies. The Secretary, Nathan Toms, read the query for 
debate: Resolved, That the execution of Charles I was unjustifiable. The 
affirmative was well argued by W. F. Harding and W. E. Darden for the 
Phi's, and the negative ably sustained by R. II. Hayes and L. C. Van Nop- 
pen for the Di's. The earnestness, clearness and force which characterised 
the arguments on both sides, together with the pleasing delivery of the 
speakers, made this debate one of the most enjoyable of the series. At its 
conclusion the committee, consisting of Dr. Manning, Dr. Alexander and 
Mr. J. II. Southgate, were escorted by the marshals, George Mar>h and 
Harry Howell, to a room where they might reach a decision. There was 
unusual interest in the decision, inasmuch as the Phi's had won two and 
the Di's tWO Of the series. The committee soon returned to the hall and 
announced that they had decided unanimously in favor of the affirmative. 
Amid much cheering the President then declared the house adjourned. 


— It will be with deep sorrow that the students of the University will 
receive the news of the death of F. P. Eller, '93, which occurred Wednes- 
day, June 15th, at 1 A. M. But few young men have so identified them- 
selves with our University during a three years stay. The President of 
his class, winner of the Debater's Medal, successful contestant in the 4th 
inter-society debate, Mr. Eller left an enviable record behind him, and 
he will be sorely missed by his class-mates and friends. 

His body was conveyed for interment to his home in Ashe county. A. 
H. Eller, his brother who had so faithfully watched by his bedside, 
together with Howard E. Rondthaler, accompanied the remains. 

Inasmuch as his death was very sudden, the news proved a sore shock 
to his parents, and the happy vacation towards which they had looked 
forward bringing with it the return of their son, has proved, through an 
inscrutable dispensation of Divine Providence, a season of sadness and 

— Saturday afternoon, April 16th, a large crowd gathered on the Uni- 
versity baseball field to witness the first game of the season — Guilford Col 
lege vs. University. Floyd and Oldham formed the. battery for the home 
team ; Smith and Hodgin for the visitors. Reagan, the regular catcher for 
the G. C. team, was laid up, and an inexperienced man had to be substi- 
tuted ; consequently Smith did not receive his usual support behind the 
bat. The visiting team could do nothing with Floyd's balls. This, to- 
gether with the sharp fielding of the U. team, prevented them from scor- 
ing until the ninth inning, when by a bad throw to third they scored one 
run. The Guilford College men had several fine players, but the hard hit- 
ting of the U. team and costly errors on the part of their opponents ena- 
bled them to score fourteen runs. The occasion was made much niore 
pleasant by the presence of a party of fifteen young ladies from Peace In- 
stitute, spending an Easter holiday at Durham. 

The University's second game was played on their grounds Friday after- 
noon, April 23d, against the Oak Ridge Institute team, resulting in a vic- 
tory for the former by a score of 7 to 4. The battery for the visiting team 
was Stevens and Stafford ; for the home team Floyd and Oldham. The 
game was very close until the sixth inning, when the O. R. boys allowed 
U. to score three runs. The home team were allowed to score three more 
runs in the eighth inning. In the ninth the visitors rallied and two men 
crossed the plate, but this only lessened the final score. The work of the 
batteries was very fine, each pitcher striking out seven men. Six base hits 
were made by the Oak Ridge team ; five by the University. The features 
of the game were the long running catches of Hampton in right and Og- 


burn in center, the latter one-handed. Bfendren made a beautiful run- 
ning catch of a foul ball behind first base ; (lie crowd also heartily cheered 
his three-base hit. Stafford made a long hit behind third which, fortu- 
nately for the U. team, struck, just a few feet within foul lines, otherwise 
three men would have scored, there being two men on bases. The work 
of Wood and Tucker as short stops was also highly complimented. 

A game was played with Davis School on their grounds Wednesday 
morninir, April 27th, University winning by a score of to 2. In the after- 
noon an exhibition game was played with the Winston professionals. Both 
sides made a good many errors, the Winston team scoring thirteen runs, 
principally on the University's errors. The final score was 13 to 3 in favor 
of Winston. 

Friday morning, April 29th, the team left for Raleigh to play a game 
with Wake Forest College at Athletic Park. On their arrival there, they 
learned that Quarles, a noted professional pitcher of Virginia, would go in 
the box for W. F. Upon inquiry it was learned that Quarles had registered 
at Wake Forest College the preceding day, had gone on recitation, but had 
not recited. lie denied that he was a professional, whereupon telegrams 
were sent and answers received that he had played last season in Winston 
for salary, and furthermore, that he had signed up lor the present season 
with Fort Worth, Texas. Nor was or could it be denied that he was paid 
over and above his expenses to play with the W. F. team. Under these 
circumstances the University did not consider him a bona fide student, 
notwithstanding the certificate signed by members of the Wake Forest fac- 
ulty to the contrary. The U. team came down with the intention of 
playing a W. F. team, composed of bona fide students; not finding such a 
team, they refused to play. On the other hand it was claimed by Wake 
Forest that Floyd and Lanier were professionals. This Floyd and Lanier 
denied and defied them to prove it. Though they had ample opportunity 
if it had been true, they failed to do so. They simply continued to con- 
tend. Both these players attended recitations in law daily, recited, bad 
entered college in the early spring and remained until the close of the 
term; whereas Quarles left Wake Forest two or three days after the date 
set for the game. Captain Johnston offered to play without Lanier and 
Floyd the moment it was proven that they were professionals, or that they 

received anything more for their services than that received by every other 
member of the team — board and expenses while <>n the trips with the 
team. The University offered Floyd and Lanier inducements to come 
here; she oilers the same inducements to every young man, and two hun- 
dred and forty-eight took advantage of them this year. They were not 
professionals, but if that game had been played, Wake For t would have 


thought so before they were through with them ; and not only them, but 
several others on the team. 

After travelling all night, the University of North Carolina baseball 
team arrived in Richmond at 7 a. m. Tuesday, May 10th, to play their first 
game with the University of Virginia team. Only a small crowd had gath- 
ered at Island Park when at 4 o'clock the game was called. This was 
was partly due to the disagreeable weather, partly to the memorial exer- 
cises. Hume and Marshall formed the battery for the Virginians ; Floyd 
and Floyd (and Oldham) for the Tar Heels. The U. N. C. boys threw 
away the game in the first three innings by their errors, allowing the Vir- 
ginia team to score five runs. During the six succeeding innings they failed 
to score. At one time it looked like a shut out for the visitors, but in the 
ninth inning two runs were scored from hits by Floyd and Robertson. 
Hume struck out three men ; Floyd fifteen. Our team batted Hume 
rather freely, but the sharp fielding of our opponents, particularly the in 
fielding, prevented us from scoring. The work of Shelton as shortstop was 
especially complimented. Hendren, right fielder for the U. N.C. boys, 
hurt his shoulder in the sixth inning and Kenan was substituted. 

The team then had to take the train at 10:30 p. m., reaching Charlotts- 
ville about 2:30 a. m. The second game with the U. Va. boys was called 
on their grounds at 4 o'clock Wednesday afternoon. Jones pitched for 
the home team and was well caught by* Marshall. Oldham for the visitors 
caught Lanier in his usual good style. Both sides played well, but the Old 
Dominion boys were beaten by a score of 7 to 4, the victors making only 
two errors, their opponents seven. The balls of Lanier were as deceptive 
to the Virginians as those of Floyd were on the preceding day. The fea- 
ture of the game was Wood's three bagger when three men were on bases. 
The throwing of Oldham to seeond also elicited much praise. 

The tired and weary Chapel Hillians were aroused at 3 o'clock Thursday 
morning to take the train for Lynchburg, arriving there at 5:15. They 
played the Washington and Lee team at the Y. M. C. A. Park the same, 
afternoon, but were beaten by a score of 9 to 3, two of these three, how- 
ever, being earned runs. After having played two games in succession and 
travelling the greater part of three successive nights the University team 
was in no condition to play, and made many errors. This, together with 
their heavy batting, allowed W. and L. to run up a large score. The bat- 
teries were Pratt and Davis for the Virginians : Floyd and Oldham for the 
Carolinians. The W. and L. team was composed principally of profes- 
sionals, as was evident from their manner and bearing on the field. The 
feature of the game was Moye's long running catch in left field. Wood 
also did good work as shortstop, his throws to first being very fine. The 


umpiring was very unsatisfactory to the Chapel Hillians. The umpire 

seemed determined that Washington and Lee should win, and at the con- 
clusion of the game made himself very conspicuous by his cheers for the 

Our team were given a warm reception at every point, and the memo- 
ries of the occasion will always linger pleasantly in the minds of those 
whose good fortune it was to take the trip. 

The whole team have worked hard this year, and every man lias played 
his position well. They certainly deserve great credit for their work. Nor 
should we forget the valuable aid rendered by the faculty. To them, and 
particularly to the encouragement and active interest of Professors Vena- 
ble and Williams, is our success and the present progressing athletic spirit 
in a great measure due. 

— The Hellenians are ready for distribution. Copies can be had by send- 
ing one dollar to Dr. A. B. Roberson, Chapel Hill, or Alfred Williams A 
Co., Raleigh, N. C. 

— Two hundred and forty-eight students ! 

— The ninety-seventh annual commencement was a fitting close to the 
past collegiate year — one of the most prosperous in all the history of this 
honored institution. The weather was pleasant, the crowd large and very 
agreeable, and the exercises enjoyable from both an intellectual and a 
social standpoint. 

The Baccalaureate sermon was preached Sunday morning, May 2Sth, by 
Rev. J. W. Carter, D. D., pastor of the First Baptist Church of Raleigh, N. 
C, in Gerrard Hall. The text chosen by Dr. Carter was "Truth shall 
spring out of the earth and righteousness shall look down from heaven." 
He discussed the question, "What is truth," its value and relation to right- 
eousness, and how they must be blended to form true character. It was a 
grand sermon and made a deep and lasting effect on the congregation, 
particularly on those to whom it was especially addressed. 

Tuesday, May 31st, was Alumni Day. At 9:30 a. m. the Board of Trus- 
tees held their annual meeting, which was Followed by a meeting of the 
University Alumni Association in Gerrard Hall. The Alumni address was 
delivered by Mr. Charles D. Mclver, President of the state Normal and 
Industrial School for girls. The speaker made many good, practical sug- 
gestions, and a committee was appointed by the Association to carry out 
these suggestions. 

The chief event of the day was the oration by Col. A. M. Waddell on the 


Life and Services of Col. Wm. L. Saunders. The orator, by reason of his 
long and intimate acquaintance with Col. Saunders, was well qualified for 
his duty, and he performed it admirably. This fitting tribute to one of 
North Carolina's most honored sons and heroes was delivered in Col. Wad- 
dell's usual happy style, completely capturing the audience, which showed 
its high appreciation by prolonged cheering at its conclusion. 

Tuesday evening the orations by representatives of the two societies were 
delivered in Memorial Hall before a large audience. The speakers and 
their subjects were: 

S. F. Austin (Phi), Saxon Ideas in America; T. J.Cooper (Di), Footprints 
of Individuals; F. C. Harding (Phi), The Conflict of Forces; W. P. M. Cur- 
rie (Di), Scotch Character; W. P. Wooten, The Future of Southern Europe. 
Much to the regret of his many friends and admirers, F. P. Eller, who had 
chosen for his subject Institutions, was prevented from delivering his ora- 
tion by sickness. 

Immediately after the conclusion of the speaking Mr. Locke Craig, of 
Asheville, presented to the Phi Society an oil portrait of Hon. Charles M. 
Stedman; likewise an oil portrait of Hon. Richmond M. Pearson was pre- 
sented to the Di. Society. 

The audience then adjourned to the handsomely decorated Gymnasium 
where the President's reception was held. Here two hours were spent in 
a most pleasant manner by visitors, as well as by Faculty and students. 
Cream and cake was served and the evening was one of rare enjoyment. 

Wednesday morning, long before the hour for the commencement exer- 
cises, visitors began to gather in Memorial Hall, so that it was nearly filled 
when at 10:30 the Trustees and Faculty, followed by the Senior class, 
marched down the long aisle to the rostrum. After prayer by Dr. Hume 
and a hymn, Dr. Winston announced that the next thing in order was the 
delivery of the Senior orations. Though the class numbered sixteen mem- 
bers, only seven were allowed to speak, these being chosen partly for ora- 
tory, partly for scholarship. The orations, on the whole, were unusually 
thoughtful, and were said to be among the best ever delivered here. The 
orators and their subjects were as follows: 

W. E. Rollins, Asheville, N. C. — Prophets Past and Present. 

Geo. W.Connor, Wilson, " — Truth and Tradition. 

Geo. H. Crowell, New London, " — Ideal Manhood. 

L. C. Van Noppen, Durham, " — False Verdicts of Our History. 

Plato Collins, Kinston, " — Reformers Before the Reformation. 

W. E. Darden, Kinston, " — A Political Anachronism. 

F. C. Mebane, Madison, " — The Philosopher and the Apostle. 


The honor of valedictorian has been abolished, otherwise the last speak- 
er would have enjoyed that distinction, he having made the highest aver- 
age of any member of the class. 

Next on the programme was the Annual Address by Hon. John G. Car- 
lisle, of Kentucky. Unfortunately we were denied the pleasure of hear- 
ing this distinguished gentleman, he being detained at home by sickness. 
However, a most agreeable surprise was in store for us. Rev. Hannis Tay- 
lor, author of the celebrated work on "The Origin and Growth of the Eng- 
lish Constitution," and, we are proud to say, an alumnus of the University 
of North Carolina, kindly consented to speak a few words to the gradua- 
ting class. Mr. Taylor, after a few allusions to his own college life and 
associates, spoke earnestly and eloquently on the value of citizenship in 
this great American republic and our duty as citizens, closing wtth a few 
words of advice and encouragement to those about to leave forever, per- 
haps, these historic walls. 

The hour being rather late, the reading of the Annual Report was dis- 
pensed with, and the medals and prizes were delivered. 

It was not long before the committee announced that Mr. G. H.Crowell, 
of New London, N. C, had won the Willie P. Mangum medal, which is 
bestowed upon that member of the graduating class delivering the best 
commencement oration. The Representative medal was won by Mr. F. C. 
Harding; Hume Essay medal by C. F. Harvey ; Philosophical prize, Mr. 
Buie ; History medal, Mr. Van Noppen ; Greek Prize, Mr. Wilson. 

The customary closing exercises took place, and it was already well on 
past noon when the vast company left Memorial Hall. 

At 5 o'clock the afternoon dance was given in the Gymnasium, which 
had been superbly decorated for the occasion. 

Thursday evening was the german, beautifully led by Victor H. Boyden, 
Chief Ball Manager, assisted by A. B. Andrews, Jr., Thomas RufKn and <!. 
H. Price from the Di Society ; S. A. Ashe, Jr., E. W. Myers and L. O'B. 
B. Jones from the Phi. The ball managers performed their duty admira- 
bly, and deserve all the compliments paid them. 

The First Regiment Band, of Richmond, furnished music for these and 
other commencement exercises. 

It was estimated that there were sixty couples present, representing the 
grace, beauty and culture of the Old North State, as well as several of her 
sister States. 

Thursday evening the rosettes and regalias were presented. Roscttrs 
were presented to the following young ladies: Misses Katherine Fuller 


(chief ball manager's), Emma Katie Jones, Etta McVea, Bessie Hender- 
son, Rena Burvvell, Marion Hamilton, and Madge Morehead. Regalias 
were presented to Misses Minnie Tucker (two, chief marshal's, also one 
assistant's), Matilda Heartt, May Davies, Sadie Taylor and Mittie Ward. 
Long before the gay dancers dreamed of it, the gray streaks of dawn an- 
nounced the approach of day ; the band very softly and very sweetly be- 
gan to play that most beautiful of all waltzes, "Home, Sweet Home," and 
as the last sweet strains died away, the commencement of '92 was at an 




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